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Wadanne ayyuka ne masu janyo tafiyar da kyawawan ayyuka a dukkanin ayoyi da ruwayoyin nan?
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Wadanne ayyuka ne masu janyo tafiyar da kyawawan ayyuka a dukkanin ayoyi da ruwayoyin nan?
Amsa a Dunkule

Ayoyin kur’ani da hadisai masu daraja sun yi bayanin zunuban nan masu janyo tafiyar da kyawawan ayyuka da cewa su ne zunubai masu wargaza aiki kuma su bata shi (aiki). kuma hakika kur’ani da ruwayoyi sun yi nuni ga sashin ayyukan da suke bata aiki ko kuma su tafiyar da shi da kyawawan ayyuka kamar Barin salla ba tare da wani uzuri ba, Gori da cutarwa bayan aikin kwarai, Rashin amincewa da abin da ya afku ga mutum (Kaddara), da wasu daga cikin ayyukan da zamu bijirar da su a jawabi dalla-dalla, gami da bayanin muhimmacin bahasin rushewar ayyuka, da kuma kula da aiki managarci. Haka nan zamu yi bayanin sabawar musulmi a wannan bahasi mai muhimmanci.

Amsa Dalla-dalla

Ayoyin kur’ani da ruwayoyi masu daraja sun yi bayanin zunubai masu jawo tafiyar da munanan ayyuka da cewa su ne zunubai masu rusa aiki, masu kuma bata shi.

A nan kafin mu amsa tambayar da ke gabanmu, ba makawa sai mun yi bayanin ma’anar rushewar aiki a ‘lugga’ da kuma ma’anarsa a wurin masana ‘istilahi’ sannan mu yi nuni zuwa ga sashin dangoginsa a cikin kur’ani mai girma da sunna mai tsarki, sannan mu yi bayanin muhimmancin kiyayewa kyawawan ayyuka da abubuwa da suke taimakawa hakan a mahangar musulunci.

Ma’anar ‘rushewar ayyuka’ na nufin bacinsa da gushewar tasirinsa. Ya zo a cikin ‘’Sihah-lugah’’ cewa: ‘’aikinsa ya gushe ma’ana ya baci, babu lada (1) ya zo a littafin Misbbahu al-Munir; ‘’Habata’’ ma’ana: aikin ya rushe ya zama fankan-fayau (2).

Kur’ani mai girma da kuma ruwayoyi sun yi nuni ga wasu sashin ayyuka masu bata aiki da tafiyar da kyawawan ayyuka, bari mu kawo muku sashin ayoyin da farko, sannan mu kawo ruwayoyi a karo na biyu.

  1. Rushewar Ayyuka a Alkur’ani:

Ma’anar rushewar aiki ‘’IHBAT’’ ta zo sau goma sha shida a cikin Kur’ani mai girma tana nuni ga wadannan ayyuka masu tafiyar da kyawawan ayyuka kamar haka:

 

  1. Kafirci da shirka; a fadansa Madaukaki ‘’Wanda duk ya kafircewa imani to, hakika aikinsa ya baci, kuma ranar lahira yana daga cikin masu hasara’’3
  2. Da fadinsa cewa: bai kamataba ga mushrikai su rika kula da masallacin Allah amma suna masu tabbatar wa kansu kafirci, wannan su ne wadanda ayyukansu suka lalace kuma su masu dauwamaa ne a cikin wuta.4

Wadannan ayoyin guda biyu masu fayyacewa ne, sun nuna mana cewa kafirci da shirka suna bata ayyukan kwarai wanda mushrikai da kafiirai suka aikata.

 

  1. Munafunci: kamar yanda ya zo a maganarsa madaukaki, cewa ‘’Masu imani suna fadin shin ba wadannan ba ne wadanda suka rantse da Allah bisa karfafawa a cikin rantsuwar cewa suna tare da ku? Ayyukansu sun baci ‘’saboda munafuncinsu’’ sannan kuma sun zama masu hasara.

 

  1. Karyatawa da ayoyi da kuma ranar kiyama; wannan shi ne abin da ya zo a fadinsa Allah Madaukaki cewa; wadannan da suka karyata ayoyinmu da kuma haduwar gobe kiyama ayyukansu batattu ne, shin akwai wani sakamako da za a yi musu face abin da suka kasance suna aikatawa.6

 

  1. Rushewar ayyuka a cikin ruwayyoyi: ’
  1. Sakaci da sallah ba tare da wani uzuri ba. An karbo daga Ubaid dan Zurarah, ya ce; na tambayi Baban Abdullahi (as) game da fadin Allah mai girma da daukaka ( wanda ya kafircewa imani to hakika aikinsa ya baci) sai ya ce: wanda ya bar aikin da ya yi ikrari da shi. Sai nace; shin mene ne matsayin barin aiki? Kana nufin har sai ya barshi gaba daya? Sai ya ce; daga cikin barin aiki’ shi ne wanda ya bar aiki (sakaci) da gangan ba tare da maye ko wata rashin lafiya ba. Sannan shakku da kai-komo a cikin zuciya a aiki da usuli (tushen addini).

 

  1. An karbo daga Mufaddal bn Umar almajirin Imam As-Sadik ya ce: na ji shi (as) yana cewa; Duk wanda ya yi shakku ko kuma ya yi zato ya kuma tsayu a kan dayansu, Allah zai bata aikin sa, domin hujjar Allah a fayyace take (9).

 

Allama Majlisi ya ce: a cikin bayanin ma’anar wannan hadisin bai halatta ba ga wanda yake da ikon isa ga yakini cikin ilimin usulu (tushen addini) ya yi aiki cikin shakku ko bisa kai-komo. Abin da Imam (as) yake nufi cewa [Hujjar Allah a fayyace take shi ne]: hakika duk wanda ya yi bincike yana neman dalili a kan usul (tushen addini) to tafarkin saduwa da shi a bude yake a gabansa. In ko har mutum ya samu yakini babu sauran wani dalili na yin aiki da shakku ko kokwonto. (10)

  1. Matar da ke cewa minjinta me ka taba yi mini: Tare da kasancewar zaman aure zama ne na addini karkashin rahamar Allah, kowa da nauyin da ya hau kansa, Uwar gida tana kula da iyali, tarbiya, da al-amuran cikin gida. Yayin da shi kuma Maigida yake hakilo domin tafiyar da rayuwar iyali a bisa tsari mai kyau don rayuwarsu ta yi kyau. Kowa akwai ladansa mai girma da kuma sakamako mai yawa a wajen Allah (swt) matukar ya tsayu da aikinsa kamar yanda ya dace musanmman ma uwargida.

Amma idan ya zamanto tana daga cikin mata masu cutar da mazajensu, suna masu kushe kokarinsa to wannan da dukkan irinta imam sadik (as) ya ce: game da su; duk matar data gayawa mijinta ‘’ban taba ganin wani abin alheri daga wajenka ba’ to aikinta ya baci (11)

  1. Me bijerewa jagorancin imam Ali (a.s): An ruwaito daga Baban Hamza ya ce na tambayi Baban Ja’afar (as) game da fadin Allah mai girma (wanda ya kafircewa imani aikinsa ya baci kuma hakika a lahira yana cikin masu hasara’’. Sai ya ce; wanda ya bijirewa jagoranci (imam) Ali. kuma Ali shi ne imani (12)

Ta hanyar abubuwan da suka gabata zamu fahimci cewa shi rushewar aiki bai kebanta da wani yanayi na daban ba. Ko kuma salon rayuwar dai-daikun mutane da kuma dukkan al’umma. Da bangaren akida da dabi’u da sauransu.

Idan muka lura da kyau zamu ga ta daya bangaren me hannun riga da ‘’ihbat’ rushewar aiki shi ne kankare zunubi ‘’takfir’’ za mu ga cewa fa ya dace mu bijiro da wannan bangaren ‘’takfir’’.

 

To, kamar yanda munanan ayyuka ke bata kyawawa, haka suma (ayyukan kwarai) suna tafiyar da munana, kai bama haka ba yana yiwuwa ma a musanya kyawawan da munanan, zamu yi nuni ga wasu kadan daga haka.

  1. Kula da sallolin wajibi; Allah mai girma yana fadi a kur’ani; ku tsaida sallah a gefen rana guda biyu da kuma wani sashin lokaci na dare, hakika kyawawan ayyuka na tafiyar da munana’’
  2. Nisantar manyan zunbai: (a) Allah ya ce in kuka nesanci manyan manyan abubuwan da ake haninku daga aikatasu, to zamu kankare muku munanan ayyukanku (14)

(b) Da zancensa Madaukaki: Wadanda suke nisantar manyan zunubai da kuma aikin alfasha face ‘yan kananan laifuka, hakika Ubangijinka mayalwacin gafara ne (15).

 

In mun yi la’akari da rawar da ‘’ihbat’’ da ‘’takfir’’ suke takawa da kuma muhimmancinsu sosai a tarbiyar musulmai da kuma tabbatar da rayuwar mutum, to ya zama wajibi mu dan tabo wasu abubuwa wanda zasu nuna mana kimar kula da ayyukan kwarai da gusar da munanan ayyuka wadanda yake aikatawa.

 

To wannan mahangar ne Kur’ani da ruwayoyin ma’asumai (as) suka kwadaitar da musulmi game da jajurcewa don kare ayyukan kwarai wanda yan Adam ke bukatarsa a ranar da dukiya da yaya ba su amfanar mutum. Bugu da kari kuma, su ayyukan kwarai na iya afkawa cikin hadari ko yaushe kuma tana iya yiwuwa ma ka ga ayyukan kwarai sun zama munana ba kamar yanda ake zato ba.

 

An ruwaito daga Abi Abdullahi (As-Sadik (as) daga Babansa, daga Kakansa ya ce; Manzon Allah (saw) ya ce; Duk wanda ya ce; Subhanallah ‘’ Allah zai shuka masa bishiya a gidan aljanna da ita. Wanda ya ce Alhamdulillah’’ Allah zai shuka masa bishiya da ita a gidan aljanna, wanda ya ce ‘’Lailaha illallah’’ Allah zai shuka masa bishiya da ita a gidan aljanna. Wanda ya ce ‘’Allahu akhbar’’ Allai zai shuka masa bishiya da ita a gidan aljanna. Sai wani mutum cikin kuraishawa ya ce: Ya rasullullahi! Ashe bishiyoyin zasu yawaita a gidan aljanna! Sai ya ce hakane! Sai dai kuma ina horonku kada kuma ku cinno musu wuta ta kone su! Saboda Allah madaukakin sarki yana cewa: ya ku wadanda kuka yi imani, ku yi da’a ga Allah kuma kuyi da’a ga manzo kada kuma ku bata ayyukanku.16

 

Daga karshe zamu yi nuni ga wasu mas’aloli muhimman ga su kamar haka; Shin musulumi sun hadu a kan maganar ‘’ihbat’’ rushewar ayyuka ko kuwa? kuma mene ne yake iyakokinsa (ihbat) tunda dai shi wannan bahasin a fayyace yake sosai ba mu da lokacin sake ambatonsa, zamu takaita da dan tsokaci na gaggawa game da inda musulmi sukan yi sabani a cikinsa, sai mu kyale mai karatu ya koma inda muka ciro bayaninmu ya gani.

 

Babban shehin malamin nan Ja’afar Subhani kwararren mai bincike na musulunci, ya kawo bayanai a littafinsa Al-Ilahiyat da waninsa daga masu bincike a kan wannan maganar ta ‘’Ihbat’’ rushewar ayyuka me cewa: ya shahara a gun malaman Kalam cewa ‘’Mu’utazilawa suna da akidar ‘Ihbat’ da Takfir’ amma Ash’ariyyawa da Imamiyya sun saba da su a kan haka.

 

Sai dai a nan fa akwai ishkali, shi ne hakika kore su gaba daya yana sabawa abin da musulmi suka amince da shi na cewa imani yana kore kafirci, kuma yana sanya mumini gidan aljanna madawwami a cikinta, sannan kuma kafirci yana ruguza aiki ya kuma dawwamar da kafiri a cikin wuta. Irin wannan nau’in na ‘’ihbat’’ da takfi’ abu ne da al’umma suka hadu a kan sa. A tare da haka kuma ya za a yi yan imamiyya da ash’ariyyawa su kore shi a mazhabinsu. Don haka ya zama wajibi a kara zurfafa bincike domin a fahimci manufarsu ta kore su gaba daya. Kuma abin da suke korewa baya cin karo da zahirin ayoyin da hadisai, wannan ke nan.

 

Duk da haka ma ko su masu akidar ‘ihbat’ sun yi sabani a wajen yanda abin yake. Daga cikinsu akwai masu cewa; munanan ayyuka mai yawa tana zaftare kyawawa ‘yan kadan, kuma ta shafesu kwatakwata. amma idan mununan kadance ba ta yin tasirin komai. Wannan shi ne abin da aka hakaito daga Abi Aliyu Juba’i.

 

Daga cikin su kuma akwai masu cewa: kyawawan ayyuka kadan suna zaftare munana masu yawa, idan munana ta karanta sai munana ta tauye kyawawa, sai a sakantawa bawa da abin da ya saura bayan haka. Wannan shi ne ra’ayin abi hashim

 

Akwai wani zancen kuma game da ‘’ihbat’’ me ban mamaki sosai Tiftazani ne ya hakaito shi a cikin littafin {sharhur Makasid’’ ma’anarsa shi ne; lallai idan mummunan aiki ya tazo a karshe yana rusa dukkan ayyuka, ko da kuwa munmunar bai kai girman ayyukan ba, har sai da jamhurinsu suka tafi a kan cewa babban zunubi daya na bata dukkan ayyukan ibada.17

A kan haka ana fitar da zantuka uku a kan ‘’ihbat’’

  1. Munmuna mai yawa tana zaftare kyakwawan ayyuka amma idan munmunar kadan ce ba ta cutar da kyawawan.
  2. Munanan mai yawa tana cutar da kyawawan ayyuka amma idan munanan kadan ce tana cutar da kyawawan ayyuka
  3. Munana da tazo daga karshe tana ba ta dukkan ayyukan da’a ba tare da la’akari da yawa ko karaanci ba.

Wadannan su ne yan bayanai a takaice game da sabanin musulmi game da ‘’ihbat’’ rushewar aiki me son Karin bayani ya bincika littafan kalam dana tafsir.

 

  1. Aljauhari, ismail bn hammad, alsiahh, j3 s-118 darul ilm berut 1990a.d.
  2. Alfayyumi, ahmed bn Muhammad, al-misbah-almunir, s118
  3. Almaida-5
  4. 4-altauba-17.
  5. al-mayar da-53.
  6. Aaraf-147.
  7. Al-mayar da-5
  8. Alkulayni Muhammad bn ya’akub, kafi, j-2, s-387 hds12. Darul kutubul islamiyah Tehran, 1365h.s.
  9. Masdarin da ya gabata, j-2, s4900, hds8
  10. Almajlisi, Muhammad, mura’atul ukul j-11-s-186, darul kutubul islamiyaa, Tehran, 1404. H.k.
  11. Alhur-alamuly-muhaammad bn hassas, wasa’il Shi’a j-20, s-162. H.d.s7. muassatul alulbayt kum, 1409 h.k
  12. Majlisi Muhammad bakir biharul anwar j-35 s-369 hds14 muassasatul wafa Beirut 1404h.k.
  13. Hud, 114
  14. Nisa’I 31
  15. Najm32
  16. Muahhmad33 alsuduk Muhammad bn ali amali j-1, s-607 intisharat maktabatul islamiyya Tehran 1362.h.s
  17. Sharhu makasid j-2 s-232 naklan alin kahujat
  18. Jaasubhaniy, al-illahiyyat j-4 s-364-365.

 

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