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Ranar Isar da Sako: 2017/06/17
Takaitacciyar Tambaya
Shin zai yiwu ai mana bayanin tafsirin suratu kausar?
SWALI
Yaya tafsir din suratul kausar yake?
Amsa a Dunkule
Suratu kausar sura ce da take da ayoyi guda uku, abin da ya fi shahara gun malamai shi ne an sauke ta a garin makka; sannan dalilin saukar ta shi ne yayewa manzon rahama (s.a.w) damuwar da yake ciki sakamakon mauta da gorin da wasu cikin kuraishawa su ka yi masa na cewa shi bai da magaji bai da baya shi mai yankakken baya ne, hakika malaman tafsiri sun fassara Kalmar kausar da tafsirai daban daban wanda abin da ya bayyana daga cikin tafsiran shi ne kasantuwa kausar da ma”anar mafi dacewar zuriya, dalili kan haka shi ne aya ta uku ta ambaci makiyansa da cewa su ne masu yankakken baya marasa zuriya da magada, ubangiji madaukaki ya sanya ladan kyautar da yayiwa manzon rahama da yin sallah da kuma soke rakumi kamar yadda ya ambata cikin aya ta biyu a cikin surar.
 
Amsa Dalla-dalla
Suratu kausar surface da ke tattare da ayoyi guda uku sannan kuma a garin makka a ka saukar da ita. [1] Sai dai cewa akwai zato da ake cewa a birnin madina aka saukar da ita sannan kuma akwai ma zato cewa ita suarar sau biyu aka saukar da ita an sauke ta a madina an kuma sauke ta a makka, sai dai cewa riwayar da ta yi bayanin sha”anin saukar surar tana goyon baya da karfafa mafi shaharar ra”ayi cikin biyun.[2]
Game da dalilin saukar wannan sura malamai sunce: dalili shi ne asi ibn wa”ilu wanda ya kasance daga manyan shugabannin mushrikai ya hadu da manzon Allah (s.a.w) yayin da yake fitowa daga masallaci ya dan dau lokaci yana tattaunawa da manzon Allah (s.a.w) akwai wasu jama”a daga manyan kuraishawa dake zaune a masallaci  a dadidai wannan lokaci to sai ya kasance sun hango wannan ganawa da ta ke kasancewa tsakanin manzon Allah (s.a.w) da Asi ibn wa”ilu lokacin da asi ibn wa”ilu ya shigo masallaci sai suka da wa ka tattauna sai ya ce: da wancan mara diyan (‘ya’yan) mai yankakken baya[3] (larabawa suna kiran mutumin da bai da diya (‘ya’yan) da sunan mai yankakken baya) daga wannan kuraishawa bayan mutuwar dan manzon Allah (s.a.w) sai suka dinga kiran manzon Allah (s.a.w) mara da mai yankakken baya, sai Allah ya saukar masa da surar kausar wacce ta ke masa bushara da alheri mai tarin yawa sannan kuma ubangiji ya ambaci makiyansa da cewa su ne masu yankakken baya marasa magada.[4]
Dukkanin kalaman da suka zo cikin wannan sura mai albarka sun karkata ne ga annabin rahama[5]  daya daga cikin muhimmiyar manufar wannan sura shi ne yayewa manzon Allah (s.a.w) damuwar da yake ciki daga miyagun kalaman makiyansa mushrikan kuraishawa.
Cikin wannan sura ta kausar da farkonta ubangiji ya fara cewa: mun baka kausar
«إِنَّا أَعْطَیْناکَ الْکَوْثَرَ».
Kausar siffa ce wacce aka tsagota daga Kalmar kasaratu ma”ana abu mai yawa ma”ana abu mai yawan alheri da albarka[6]
Sakamakon rashin matsaya guda wurin malaman tafsiri kan ma”anar Kalmar kausar, sai dai cewa ya zo cikin riwaya cewa yayin da wannan sura ta sauka manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya hau saman mimbari ya karanta wannan sura ta kausar sai sahabbai suka tambaye shi wanne alheri mai tarin yawa da Allah ya yi maka kyautarsa? Sai ya ce wata korama ce a cikin aljanna wacce farinta ya fi na nono kindirmo ya fi daidaiton tsayuwa daga kofin tangaran da aka kewaye geffansa da yakutu da lu”lu”u.[7]
An karbo daga imam sadik (a.s) cewa kausar wata korama ce cikin aljanna wadda Allah madaukaki ya baiwa manzon Allah (s.a.w) bayin dansa Abdullahi da ya yi wafati ya bar duniya.[8]
Wasu sashe sun ce ma”ana kausar shi ne dai wannan tafkin na kausarada aka baiwa Annabi (s.a.w) wanda mumini yayin shigar su aljanna zasu tsaya su sha daga wannan tafkin na kausara.[9]
Wasu kuma sun fassara kausara da annabta, wasu sashen kuma sun fassara da `ya`ya da zuriya wadanda dukkaninsu daga zuriyar diyarsa Fatima (a.s) suka bubbuga suka samu, wasu kuma sun fassara ta da ceto.[10] Idan muka tattara tafsiran zasu kai guda 26 wanda kowannensu ya fassara kausar da ma”ana mabanbanciya[11] daga ragowar amma mafi bayyana da dacewa cikin tafsiran shi ne wanda ya tafi kan kasantuwar kausar da ma”anar alheri mai tarin yawa.[12]
A kowanne hali kasancewar ayar da ta zo a karshen sura ta kausar it ace fadin (makiyinka shi ne mai yankakken baya mara zuriya) da kuma kasantuwar ambaton Kalmar abtar a cikin jumlar wanda a ina ilimin balaga ake kiran irin wannan jumla da kasru kalbi[13]  to da wannan ne zamu fuskanci cewa ita kausar na nanufin zuriya mara yankewa wacce Allah ya ni”imta manzonsa da ita, ko kuma dai mu fassara ta da ma”anar alheri mai tarin yawa duk biyun na dace wa da zahirin ma”anar ayar, sannan da ace kausar bai yiwuwa a fassara da ma”anar zuriya fassara mai cin gashinta ko kuma jinginanna  to harafin (inna) da ya zo a farkon ayar karshe zai wayi gari bai da wata ma”ana, domin shi harafi (inna) bayan tahkiki da ya ake yi to yana kasancewa sababi domin menene ma”anar fadin Allah: mun baka tafkin kausara saboda makiyinka shi ne mai yankakken baya mara zuriya.
Akwai riwayoyi masu tarin yawa da suke bayani kan saukar surar kausar da kasantuwarta amsa ga wadanda suka bakantawa manzon Allah (s.a.w)  sakamakon mutuwar `ya`yansa Abdullah da kasim.[14]
(Ka yi sallah ka soke rakumi) zahiri cikin kasantuwa zuwan harafin fa”u na bayyana cewa yin sallah da hadayar abin yanka ya samo reshene daga kyautar da Allah yayiwa manzonsa da kausara, a babin godiya ga ni”ima da aka ni”imta da ita.
Sannan Kalmar shani”aka[15] nada ma”anar makiyi mai tsanani fushin kiyayya, ita kuma Kalmar abtar tana da ma”anar mara jela mai yankakken baya, ba wani ba ne ya yi amfani da wannan mummuna kalma ta cin fuskar manzon rahama (s.a.w) da ya wuce Asi ibn Wa”ilu.
 

[1] Dabarasi falalu ibn hassan mawallafin littafin majma”ul bayan fi tafsir kur”an juz 10 sh 835.nasir kosro. Tafsirul mizan allama taba”taba” sayyid Muhammad husaini juz 20 sh 369 mudabba”ar daftarul  intisharatil islamiya kum shekara 1417 kamariyya
[2] Tafsirul amsal wallafar ayatullahi al”uzma nasiru mukarimul shirazi juz 27 sh 367 mudabba”ar darul kutubul islamiyya Tehran shekara 1374 hijira shamsiyya
[3] Tajul arus min jawahirul kamus wallafar wasidi zubaidi muhibbu dini wanda yayi gyara ciki yayi tahkiki shi ne shiru aliyu juz 6 sh 44 bugun darul fikiri  bairut bugun farko sh 836
[4] Sh 836  Majma”ul bayan fi tafsirul kur”an juz 10
[5] Haka ma misalin surar duha  da suratu alam nashrah
[6] Kamusul kur”an sayyid ali karashi juz 12 sh 54 mabugar darul kutubul islamiyya  tehranshekara 1374 hijira shamsiyya. Tajul arus juz 7 sh436
[7] Tafsirul majma”il bayan juz 10 sh 836(ibn abbas yana cewa yayin da wannan sura ta sauka manzon Allah(saw) ya hau kan mimbari sai ya karantawa mutane ita yayinda ya sauko daga kan mimibari sai suka ce masa  meye wannan abu da ubangiji yayi maka kyautarsa ? sai yace wata korama ce a aljanna da ta fi nono fari tafi kofin tangaran daidaitar tsayuwa wanda ak keawye geffansa da yakutu da lu”ulu”u.
[8] An rawaito daga baban Abdullah(a.s) cewa kausar wata korama ce da aka baiwa manzon(saw) mayin dansa.
[9] Masdarin da ya gabata
[10] Masdarin da ya gabata sh 836
[11] Almizan fi tafsirul kur”an juz 20 sh 370
[12]   Amsal juz 27 sh 371 wallafar ayatullahi al”uzma nasir mukarimul shirazi  tafsirul
[13] Wannan wani isdilahi ne na balaga da yake mayar da Magana kan wanda ya fara fadinta da farko ma”ana su makiya manzon Allah da suke masa lakabi da mai yankakken baya to sune ainahin masu yankakken baya marasa zuriya
[14] Almizan fi tafsirul kur”an juz 20 sh 371
[15] Tajul arus juz 1 sh 182
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