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Takaitacciyar Tambaya
Mece ce mahangar mafi yawan malamai game da jagorancin malami bayan babbar boyuwar Imami?
SWALI
Mece ce mahangar mafi yawan malamai game da jagorancin malami bayan babbar boyuwar Imami?
Amsa a Dunkule

Sama da shekaru dubu ne malaman shi’a suke yin bincike kan mas’alar jagorancin malami, wasu kamar abussalah halbi, da ibn idris hilli, sun yi bayani dalla-dalla game da sharuddan malami mai maye gurbin imami ma’asumi a wannan zamani, wasu ma sun yi bayani kan ayyukan da suka hau kansa a cikin bahasoshinsu kan hakan.

Wasu kuwa kamar mai littafin “miftahul karama” ya kawo dalili kan jagoranin malami, masu kuwa kamar mulla ahmad naraki, ya kawo bayanin iyakokin ayyukan jagora malami. Wasu kuwa kamar mai Jawahir ya yi bayani kan hakan dalla-dalla, wasu kuwa a takaice, sai dai dukkansu sun tafi a kan cewa jagorancin malami wani abu ne wanda yake kowa ya sallama da cewa akwai shi.

Amsa Dalla-dalla

Daga zamanin sheikh mufid (333, ko 338 – 413 H) har zuwa yau malaman shi’a sun yi bincike kan jagoarnacin malami, kamar su Abussala alhalbi a cikin littafinsa yana mai bayani a wani fasali game da wakilin imami ma’asumi da sharuddansa. Wasu kuwa sun yi bahasi ne game da jagorancin malami da sharuddansa, da iyakokin ikonsa, sai dai su kansu sun tafi a kan cewa lamarin jagorancin malami wani abu ne wanda kowa ya sallama da shi.

Domin wannnan lamarin ya bayyana a fili muna iya kawo takaitaccen tarihin wannan mas’ala ta jagoranin malami a mahangar malaman shi’a idan an cire sheikh mufid da nasa bahasin yake kbukata[1] wani bayani na musamman daban.

 

1. Sheikh Abussalah al’Halbi (m: 447 H)

Yana daga cikin dalibin sayyid murtadha da sheikh Dusi ya ware wani babi a littafin “alkafi” yana mai ambaton sa da “Tanfizul ahkam” wato zartar da hukunci. Yana mai cewa: “Gudanar da hukuncin shari’a bisa doka daga wajiban da suka hau kan ma’asumi ne, kuma suka kebanta da shi ba wasu mutane ba wadanda ba su cancanci wannan matsayi ba[2]

A nan ya kawo bayanin cewa sha’anin hukuma abu ne da ya shafi dukkan hukuma da siyasa wanda ya kebanci imami ma’asumi (a.s), sai kuma wanda shi imam (a.s) ya ba wa izini wanda ya cika sharudda da suka hada da:

 1. Ilimi da gaskiya a hukuncin da ake koma masa

2. Iko kan gudanar da wannan hukunci da dokokin

3. Hankali da tunani da  juriya

4. basira da sanin yanayin (zamaninsa)

5. Yin adalci, da tsarkin rai (takawa) da bin shari’a

6. Ikon tsayuwa da lamurran hukuma da sanya komai mahallinsa[3];

Da wannan ne ma zamu ga sharuddan zama jagora a jamhuriyya musulunci kamar haka:

1. Ilimin a kowane babin fikihu

2. Adalci da takawa ga jagorancin al’umma

3. Mahanga sahihiya a siyasa, da zaman tare, da gudanarwa, da jarumataka, da tafiyarwa, da karfi isasshe don jagoranci

 

2. Ibn Idris Hilli (m. 598 H)

Yana kawowa a littafin “Sara’ir” bayan karni daya da rabi da wucewar Abussalah al’Halbi kamar yadda shi ma ya kawo a wani fasali “Tanfizul ahkam” wato gudanar (da zartar) da hukunci.  Ya kawo ainihin sharuddan da suka yi kama da na Abussalah sosai, sai dai ya kawo karin cewa dole ne ya kasance mai dawwamar da bayar da fatawa da aiki da ita. Kuma tayiwu yana nufin karfafa wannan ijtihadi ne na malami jagora wanda aka yi nuni da shi da cewa ya kansace yana da ilimi.

 

3. Muhakki Hilli (m. 676 H)

Shi ma yana kawowa a bahasin Humusi cewa: Kula da tafiyar da hakkin imami (a.s) a hanyar da ta cancanta yana kan wadanda suke masu wakiltar imami ma’asumi ne wadanda su ne suke da ayyukan da suka hau kan imam (a.s) yayin boyuwarsa.

Zamu ga Zainuddin bn Ali al’amuli da aka fi sani da shahidus sani (966 H.Sh) yana yin bayanin wannan magana da cewa:

“Wanda ake nufi a wannan Magana shi en wanda yake wakiltar imami wato malami adali mai bin imami wanda yake da sharuddan bayar da fatawa, domin wakili shi ne wanda aka kafa shi ta fuskacin imami (a.s)”[4].

 

4. Muhakkik Karaki (m; 940 H)

Yana cewa: Malaman shi’a sun yi ittifaki a kan cewa malami da ya cika sharuddan wanda ake cewa da shi “Mujtahidi”, shi yana da wakilcin duk wani abu da imamai ma’asumai suke da hannu a kansa, don haka biyayya gareshi wajibi ce. Kuma yana da hakki idan ya zama dole ya sayar da dokiyar wani domin fitar da hakkinta, kuma shi ne mai iko da kula da dokiyar yara da wawaye, da nakasassu, wato duk wani abu da yake ga imami ma’asumi (a.s) yana da shi.

Kuma abin da ya zo a ruwayar Umar bn Hanzala yana nuni da wannan lamarin[5].

Sannan sai ya ci gaba da cewa: Idan mutum zai yi adalci zai ga dukkan malaman shi’a kamar sayyid murtadha, sheikh Dusi, Baharul Ulum, da Allama Hilli, zai ga cewa duk sun bi wannan hanyar ne, kuma sun rubuta abubuwan da suka yi imani da su.

Idan mun duba wannan bayanai da suka gabata zamu samu ga akwai maganganu masu yawa masu karfafarsu daga kalamai malaman shi’a masu daraja a tsawon tarihi da suka hada da:

5- Maula Ahmad Mukaddas Ardabili (m: 999h) [6]

6- Haji Oaka Ridha Hamdani (m: 1322h) [7]

7- Jawad bn Muhammad Husaini Amuli (m; 1226h)[8]

8- Mulla Ahmad Naraki (m: 1245h) [9]

9- Sheikh Muhammad Hasan Najafi, mai Jawahir (m: 1266h) [10]da[11] da[12]

10- Sheikh Murtadha Ansari (m: 1281h) [13]da[14]

11- Sayyid Muhammad Baharul Ulum (m: 1326h)[15]

12- Ayatullahi Burujard (m: 1382 h Sh) [16]

13- Ayatullahi Sheikh Murtadha Ha’iri (m: 1362 h Sh) [17]

14- Imam Khomain (k) (m: 1368 h Sh)

Imam Khomain (k) yana cewa: Bisa tabbas malami yana da jagoranci babu wani kaidi, wato cewa dukkan abin da yake na imami ma’asumi (a.s) shi ma sun hau kansa, a lokacin boyuwa imam mahadi (a.s) wannan yana hannun malami da ya cika sharudda, sai dai idan an samu wani dalili na musamman da ya nuna cewa akwai wani nauyi da ya kebanci imami ma’asumi (a.s). Don haka ne ma yake cewa:

Daga bayanin da ya gabata zamu kai ga cewa malamai suna da jagoranci a komai da imamai masu daraja suke da jagoranci kansa, suna da wannan jagoranci mai fadi maras kaidi, kuma idan ana son fitar da wata mas’ala daga wannan ka’ida to dole ne a samu wani bayani na musamman daga imami ma’asumi (a.s) da ya zo da sabanin wannan ka’ida.

Kamar a samu cewa “lamari kaza ya kebanci imami ne” ko kuma “imami ya bayar da umarni kaza ne”, da …; kamar yadda muka yi nuni ne a baya cewa: Dukkan abubuwan da suke hakkin manzon Allah (s.a.w) ne da imamai masu daraja (a.s) na hukuma da jagoranci to yana tabbata ga malami mai cika sharudda.[18]

 

Don Karin Bayani

Mahadi Hadawi Tehrani, Wilayat ba Diyanat, Cibiyar Al’adu ta Khaneyye Khirad, Kum, Bugu na biyu, 1380.

 


[1] Ranmaye: wilayate fakih, ba sheikh Mufid, su’al 22.

[2] Absusalah halbi, alkafi fil fikh, s: 422.

[3] Absusalah halbi, alkafi fil fikh, s: 422.

[4] Zainuddin bn Ali al’amuli al’jibi’I, masalikul afham, j 1, s: 53.

[5] Muhakki karaki, rasa’ilul muhakki assani, risalatul jum’a, j 1, s: 142.

[6] Mukaddas ardabili, majma’ul fa’ida wal burhan, j 4, s: 205.

[7] Haji Oaga Ridha Hamdani, misbahul fakih, kitabul khums, s: 160.

[8] Husain amuli, miftahul karama (kitabul kadah), j 10, s: 21.

[9] Ahmad naraki, a’wa’idul ayyam, s: 187-188.

[10] Muhammad Hasan najafi, jawahirul kalam, j 16, s: 178.

[11] Hurrul amuli, Wasa’ilus shi’a, j 18, s: 101.

[12] Muhamamd Hasan najafi, jawahirul kalam, j 21, s: 395-397.

[13] Murtadha ansari, almakasib, s: 154, sadara 34.

[14] Murtadha ansari, kitabul kadah was shahadat, s: 243 – 244.

[15] Baharul ulum, bulgatul fakih: j 3, s 221, 234, 232.

[16] Kitabul badaruz zahir, ayatullahi burujard, s: 52

[17] Murtadha ha’iri: salatul jum’a: s 144.

[18] Imam khomain: kitabul bai’: j 2, s 488-489.

 

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