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Last Updated: 2012/01/17
Summary of question
Is an Imam’s status greater than that of a prophet’s?
question
In his “Hukumate Islami” (Islamic government), Imam Khomeini says: “Surely the status of the Imams is so great and lofty that neither the angels nor the prophets can reach their status.” (Islamic Government, p. 25) How can such a thing be possible?
Concise answer

The superiority of the Imams in comparison to the prophets is mentioned in many hadiths and the reason to it is the oneness of the inner light of the prophet of Islam and the Imams. Since the prophet is greater than other prophets, the status of the Imams that are from the same source of light is also higher than that of the other prophets. As for man being greater than the angels, one can say that this is an indisputable principle of Islamic belief, therefore, it is not at all unlikely for the Imams to have a higher status in comparison to the angels.

Detailed Answer

This opinion of Imam Khomeini’s is derived from the many ahadith that are narrated in this regard in authentic hadith books:

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَیْنِ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ یَحْیَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْکَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْخَالِقِ وَ أَبِی بَصِیرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع یَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا وَ اللَّهِ سِرّاً مِنْ سِرِّ اللَّهِ وَ عِلْماً مِنْ عِلْمِ اللَّهِ وَ اللَّهِ مَا یَحْتَمِلُهُ مَلَکٌ مُقَرَّبٌ وَ لَا نَبِیٌّ مُرْسَلٌ وَ لَا مُؤْمِنٌ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قَلْبَهُ لِلْإِیمَانِ وَ اللَّهِ مَا کَلَّفَ اللَّهُ ذَلِکَ أَحَداً غَیْرَنَا وَ لَا اسْتَعْبَدَ بِذَلِکَ أَحَداً غَیْرَنَا...[1] “Imam Sadiq stated: There is a secret of Allah and a knowledge of Allah with us that neither one of a close angel, a prophet, or a believer that has been tested, has the capacity to possess it. Allah has not made anyone responsible for it except us, and no one other than us has praised and worshipped Allah through it.”

Therefore, issues such as the knowledge and status of the Imams are based on such ahadith and Shia scholars who have expressed such opinions have solely relied on these very ahadith.

Before entering the topic of the status of the Imams, we must note that the superiority of man over angels is an indisputable Islamic teaching. Therefore, it is very likely for the Imams to have a greater status than the angels. As for their superiority over the other prophets, this can be proven through a couple of methods and does not contradict any Islamic principles. In fact understanding their superiority has a close connection with comprehending the spiritual truth of Islam. It is the duty of every Muslim to gain appropriate and precise knowledge in regard to this status which is the feature of the ‘complete human’ and not be indifferent about it. Proof for the abovementioned claim is mentioned within the following points:

First: All infallibles have one essence, in other words they are all from one light. This oneness of their light is clearly mentioned in many ahadith. However, in some ahadith the five ‘people of the cloak’ have been mentioned while in others all of the infallibles have been mentioned.

We will mention one hadith for each of the two respectively:

A: قال الله تعالى: «یَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنِّی خَلَقْتُکَ وَ خَلَقْتُ عَلِیّاً وَ فَاطِمَةَ وَ الْحَسَنَ وَ الْحُسَیْنَ مِنْ سِنْخِ نُورِی وَ عَرَضْتُ وَلَایَتَکُمْ عَلَى أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرَضِینَ فَمَنْ قَبِلَهَا کَانَ عِنْدِی مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ وَ مَنْ جَحَدَهَا کَانَ عِنْدِی مِنَ الْکَافِرِینَ یَا مُحَمَّدُ لَوْ أَنَّ عَبْداً مِنْ عِبَادِی عَبَدَنِی حَتَّى یَنْقَطِعَ أَوْ یَصِیرَ کَالشَّنِّ الْبَالِی ثُمَّ أَتَانِی جَاحِداً لِوَلَایَتِکُمْ مَا غَفَرْتُ لَهُ أَوْ یُقِرَّ بِوَلَایَتِکُم‏...»[2]

The mentioned hadith is among the ahadith that are related to the prophet’s Mi’raj (Ascension) in which Allah addressing His prophet said: “O Muhammad! I created you, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Hussein from my light and I presented your Wilayah to all creatures of the heaven and earth. Whoever accepts it, is considered a believer in my eyes and whoever doesn’t, is considered a disbeliever in my eyes. O Muhammad! If a servant of mine worships and praises Me to the extent that his body gets tired and weak and then comes to My presence while he has rejected your Wilayah, I will not forgive him until he adheres to your Wilayah.”

B: «یَا مُحَمَّدُ إِنِّی خَلَقْتُ عَلِیّاً وَ فَاطِمَةَ وَ الْحَسَنَ وَ الْحُسَیْنَ وَ الْأَئِمَّةَ مِنْ نُورٍ وَاحِدٍ ثُمَّ عَرَضْتُ وَلَایَتَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِکَةِ فَمَنْ قَبِلَهَا کَانَ مِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِینَ وَ مَنْ جَحَدَهَا کَانَ مِنَ الْکَافِرِینَ یَا مُحَمَّدُ لَوْ أَنَّ عَبْداً مِنْ عِبَادِی عَبَدَنِی حَتَّى یَنْقَطِعَ ثُمَّ لَقِیَنِی جَاحِداً لِوَلَایَتِهِمْ أَدْخَلْتُهُ النَّار...»[3]

In this hadith the fact that all Imams are from the same light is clearly mentioned.

Second: All of the Ahlul-Bayt have Wilayah[4], meaning that the successors of the prophet are righteous and pious and infallible individuals that have spiritual influence on this world and, with Allah’s permission, they oversee the souls and hearts of people and can have an effect (this effect is called a takwini effect) on them in addition to carrying out the responsibility of social leadership and answering questions pertaining to Islamic rulings.

Allameh Tabatabei says in this regard: “Imamate is a type of wilayah on the actions of the people (from an inner perspective, meaning that it has an impact on their insides) which is intertwined with guidance; guidance here means to actually take to the destination, not just to show the path the way the prophets and messengers and even righteous individuals in general do through preaching and advising the people and calling them to the path of God.”[5]

In other words, one can say that Wilayah is of two kinds: Tashri’i and Takwini.

Tashri’i Wilayah means to have the right of lawmaking which is exclusively for Allah. Even the prophet does not possess such a right[6], but rather warns, gives glad tidings, conveys the commands of Allah and explains them.[7]

Takwini Wilayah refers to the ability to exert effect and influence on creatures with the permission of Allah. In other words, one who possesses Takwini Wilayah creates something outside of his will through his will; he can intervene in this world’s affairs.

On this basis, all miracles that Allah’s chosen ones present is derived from this Takwini Wilayah and virtually all practical miracles[8] such as splitting the moon[9] and splitting the tree[10] carried out by the prophet of Islam, splitting of the earth[11] and splitting of the sea[12] in the story of Qarun and the Pharoah by prophet Musa, splitting the mountain[13] by prophet Saleh, curing the blind, the leper and reviving the dead[14] by prophet Isa and tearing down the door of the Khaybar fort by Imam Ali[15], are nothing but the intervention of a complete human in the order of the world and its laws through the power of Takwini Wilayah.

Third: Wilayah is granted due to one’s closeness to Allah and his annihilation in Him,[16] and closeness to Allah is gained through obeying Him and taking on His features.  In other words, man cannot become God, but he can become Godly. The more he gets closer to the unlimited essence of Allah and tears apart both dark and luminous curtains and veils, and disdains his own acts, features and essence, the more he will see the features of Allah manifested in himself.[17]

Allah’s power to influence the world is unlimited, and the more one is connected to this unlimited source of power, the more he will have the power to influence and affect the world order and other creatures.

It is mentioned in the qudsi ahadith that Allah says: My servant! Obey Me so that I make you like myself;[18] O son of Adam, I am free from all needs and I will not become needy, obey Me so that I make you free from all needs and so that you won’t become needy. I am alive and I will not die, obey My commands so that I make you live for eternity in a way that you will never die. I command things to “Be” and they are, obey Me so that I make you command things to “Be” and they will be”.[19]

Fourth: The status of Wilayah is very different from the status of prophethood and is superior to it.

To explain this point, a Waliyy (one who bears wilayah) is informed of the divine truths when he reaches the status of Fana’ Fi Allah (annihilation in Allah) and when he returns from that heavenly field, he presents what he has experienced. This knowledge is sometimes referred to as Nubuwwah ʻĀmmah or Nubuwwah Maqāmi. Also, sometimes the term Nubuwwah Ta’rif is used to refer to this knowledge as opposed to Nubuwwah Tashri’i. A Nabiyy speaks of the essence, features and acts of Allah in terms of Nubuwwah Ta’rif on one hand, and on the other hand conveys the commands and rulings, trains people with morality and teaches wisdom and has social and political leadership in terms of Nubuwwah Tashri’i. The Quran says: “وَ لَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ آتَیْناهُ حُکْماً وَ عِلْماً وَ کَذلِکَ نَجْزِی الْمُحْسِنین[20] meaning that the individual that reaches the status of Ihsan, is rewarded with the Mashrabe Musawi which refers to the status of Nubuwwah Maqami, even though he will not reach Mansabe Musawi which refers to the status of Nubuwwah Tashri’i.[21] Therefore, even though we cannot reach prophethood and the status of Tashri’i prophethood, but through performing acts of worship and passing  the different levels of perfection through the Nawafil (Mustahab acts) and the Fara’idh (Wajib acts), one can reach the Nubuwwah Maqami and the status of Wilayah.

Based on the above, the differences between the status of Wilayah and the status of prophethood can be summarized in the following points:

1- Wilayah has a godly dimension to it, while prophet hood has a worldly one related to creation. In other words, prophethood is the outer crust of wilayah, while wilayah is the inner core of prophethood.

2- Because the prophets are annihilated in the existence of Allah, they are informed of the hidden truths of the world.  Then as al-baqā baʻd al-fanā’ or al-ṣaḥw baʻd al-maḥw, they come back to explain those truths.  At all events, the source of prophethood is their status of Wilayah and that godly dimension.

3- A Waliyy has knowledge of the Ḥaqiqah and the Shari’ah, meaning that he possesses the knowledge of the manifest (Dhāhir) and the hidden (Bāṭin), while the prophets are sent only for the Dhāhir and Shari’ah .

4- A Waliyy can is aware of the inner and outer actions of the people, therefore, he must be obeyed unconditionally.

5- The Nabiyy and Rasul gain their knowledge through the angels and the other mediums of revelation while the Waliyy gains his knowledge directly from the Haqiqah Muhammadiyyah (Muhammadan Reality).[22]

6- Prophethood and Risalah are confined to time and place, and therefore, prophets are not always present on earth, while Wilayah is not like that, because Waliyy is one of the names of Allah[23] and the names of Allah remain and constantly exist at all times[24]. As a result, this name of Allah must manifest itself in some way, therefore, Wilayah is never disconnected.[25] The complete human is the absolute and utter manifestation of this holy name. The complete human has general Wilayah. On the other hand, Rasul and Nabiyy is not one of the Allah’s names, and Nubuwwah and Risalah are among the Kawniyyah Zamaniyyah features that do not necessarily always exist.

7- Wilayah encompasses Risalah, Tashri’i Nubuwwah and the general non-Tashri’i Nubuwwah, therefore, they have referred to it as the al-Falak al-Muḥīt al-‘Āmm.

8- The giver of Nubuwwah and Risalah is the Dhahir Ism, whose rules relate to Tajliyah, while the giver of Wilayah, is the Batin Ism, which has to do with Tahliyah.

9- Wilayah is core of prophethood and Risalah, and reaching these two requires possessing Wilayah.[26]

Conclusion

It is clearly understood from what was said above that first: the Wilayah of a messenger is greater than his messengership and the Wilayah of a prophet is greater than his prophethood and secondly: sometimes a Waliyy is not granted prophethood but in terms of his Wilayah he is greater and higher than a prophet. This is why Khidr can rebuke prophet Musa saying: “انک لن تستطیع معی صبرا” “Indeed you cannot have patience with me!” and then chide him in a harsher way saying: “ألم اقل انک لن تستطیع معی صبرا” “Did I not say, indeed you cannot have patience with me?” and finally state that: “هذا فراق بینی و بینک” “This is where you and I shall part.”[27] And it is on this basis that after the appearance of Imam Mahdi, Prophet Isa will follow him[28] even though he is one of the ‘arch-prophets’ (ulu al-ʻazm). In short, despite the fact that Khidr and Imam Mahdi were not prophets, but in terms of Takwini Wilayah, they have superiority over prophets Musa and Isa. This is why Imam Ali says: “أَرَى نُورَ الْوَحْیِ وَ الرِّسَالَةِ وَ أَشُمُّ رِیحَ النُّبُوَّةِ وَ لَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ رَنَّةَ الشَّیْطَانِ حِینَ نَزَلَ الْوَحْیُ عَلَیْهِ(ص)...” “I would see the light of revelation and I could sense the smell of prophethood. When revelations were given to him, I heard the cry of Satan”... And the prophet said about him: “إِنَّکَ تَسْمَعُ مَا أَسْمَعُ وَ تَرَى مَا أَرَى إِلَّا أَنَّکَ لَسْتَ بِنَبِی” “And you surely hear what I hear and see what I see, except that you are not a prophet.”[29] Also, Imam Hasan said after the martyrdom of Imam Ali: “و الله لقد قبض فیکم اللیلة رجل ما سبقه الأولون إلا بفضل النبوة، و لایدرکه الآخرون” “By Allah, A man was taken from among you that the ones before only exceeded in bearing the virtue of prophethood , and the ones after him will never reach his status.”[30] The prophet says: “إن لله عبادا لیسوا بأنبیاء یغبطهم النبیون بمقاماتهم و قربهم إلى الله تعالى” “Allah has servants that are not prophets but the prophets wish and long to reach their status and their closeness to Allah.”[31] In this hadith, in addition to mentioning the fact that individuals that are not prophets can be greater than prophets, it also mentions the reason to this, and the phrase “و قربهم إلى الله تعالى” “their closeness to Allah” explains the key to their preference. It is also understood from what was mentioned above, that the finest level of proximity is nothing but reaching Takwini Wilayah.

The Quran also says in this regard: “وَ یَقُولُ الَّذینَ کَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلا قُلْ کَفى‏ بِاللَّهِ شَهِیداً بَیْنِی وَ بَیْنَکُمْ وَ مَنْ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ الْکِتابِ[32] “The faithless say," You have not been sent [by Allah]." Say," Allah suffices as a witness between me and you, and he who possesses the knowledge of the Book.”

In this verse, Allah has mentioned two witnesses. The first is Himself and the second is the one possessing the ‘knowledge of the Book’. Allah argues with reasons and witnesses and one of the witnesses of Allah is the Quran which is miracle. But who are the “من عنده علم الکتاب” “Those who possess the knowledge of the Book.” And what are their features that make their testimony proof for the prophetical claims of the prophet? In short, one could say that this phrase refers to Imam Ali and the Imams after him that possess the status of Takwini Wilayah.

In order to explain the abovementioned issue, we will note the story of Prophet Suleiman and the transfer of the throne of Bilqays (the queen of Sheba) which is mentioned in verses 20 till 41 of Surah Naml. The hoopoe brought news from the land of Sheba for prophet Suleiman that a woman rules that region and possesses everything and has a great throne! Her people prostrate to and worship the sun. Prophet Suleiman wrote a letter to the queen of Sheba saying: “Come to me while having submitted to the truth!”, but she sent gifts instead. Prophet Suleiman did not accept the gifts and he said: "O [members of the] elite! Which of you will bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?” An ifreet from among the jinn said, "I will bring it to you before you rise from your place. Indeed I have the power for it and am trustworthy." The one who had ‘knowledge of the Book’ said, "I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye" So when he saw it (the throne) set near him, he (the one who possessed knowledge of the Book) said: "This is by the grace of my Lord.” Verse 40 from the Quran is as follows: “قالَ الَّذی عِنْدَهُ عِلْمٌ مِنَ الْکِتابِ أَنَا آتیکَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ یَرْتَدَّ إِلَیْکَ طَرْفُکَ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ مُسْتَقِرًّا عِنْدَهُ قالَ هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّی

The one who was able to bring the throne of Bilqays from Yemen to Palestine in a twinkling of an eye and was able to intervene in the order of the world, was a person that possessed Takwini Wilayah and according to the ahadith, knew the al-Ism al-Aʻdham (The great name of Allah) and as the Quran says had knowledge of the Book, which means he possessed some knowledge of the Book. In other words, the wording of the Quran suggests that because he possessed some knowledge of the book and had a certain level of Takwini Wilayah he was able to do such intervention.

In a hadith from the prophet he tells Abu Sa’id Khudri: “The phrase “the one who possessed knowledge of the Book” refers to the successor of my brother Suleiman, the son of Dawud, (who would be Asf Bin Barkhiya, prophet Suleiman’s nephew) and the phrase “and he who possessed the knowledge of the Book” refers to my brother Ali Bin Abi Talib”.[33] Obviously there is great difference between “the one who possessed knowledge of the Book” and “he who possessed the knowledge of the Book”, because the second is partial while the first is complete knowledge.[34]

It is mentioned in the ahadith that the al-Ism al-Aʻdham of Allah has seventy three letters, one of which was known by Asif Bin Barkhiya and 72 letters are known by the Ahlul-Bayt and one letter is exclusively known by Allah.[35] This is why Imam Sadiq (as) says when explaining the verses that tell the story of Asif Bin Barkhiya: “وَ عِنْدَنَا وَ اللَّهِ عِلْمُ الْکِتَابِ کُلُّهُ[36] “And by Allah, all of the knowledge of the Book is with us [the Ahlul-Bayt].”, meaning that if that individual had some knowledge of the book, we (the Ahlul-Bayt) possess all of the knowledge of the book.  From what was said, one can conclude that there is a difference between those who possess the Ism al-Aʻdham of Allah (those who possess Takwini Wilayah) because some of them know one letter while others know seventy two. But is there a difference between those who know the 72 letters as well? When explaining verse 43 of Surah Ra’d Imam Sadiq says: “إِیَّانَا عَنَى وَ عَلِیٌّ أَوَّلُنَا وَ أَفْضَلُنَا وَ خَیْرُنَا بَعْدَ النَّبِیِّ (ص) [37] “This verse refers to us, and Ali is the first of us and the highest and best after the prophet.”

Finally, we advise you to refer to the book “Negareshi Erfani, Falsafi va Kalami be Shakhsiyat va Qiyame Imam Husayn[38] in order to shed light on all facets of this topic.



[1] Thiqatul-Islam Kuleini, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, pg. 402, Daar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran.

[2] Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 36, pg. 216.

[3] Ibid, pp. 223 and 281.

[4] Imam Ali says in this regard: “وَ لَهُمْ خَصَائِصُ حَقِّ الْوِلَایَة” “The features of Wilayah are for the household of the prophet.”

[5] Tababatai, Muhammad Husein, al-Mizan, vol. 1, pp. 275 and 276.

[6] However, it is said that in a certain field of Islamic rulings, the authority of legislating rulings was given to the prophet by Allah and the prophet exercised this authority. For example, the third and fourth rak’at of Dhuhr prayer are an example of the prophet’s legislation that was done with the permission of Allah. If such a thing is true, then we must say that such an authority is exclusively for a Nabiyy and is only granted to him, and even the Imams do not have such a right.

[7] In this regard, see: Jathiyah:19; Shura: 13 and 22; Ra’d:8; Isra’:106 and also: Ibn Arabi, Muhyi al-Din, al-Futuhat, vol. 3 of 4 volume edition, pg. 69.

[8] A Qowli (verbal) miracle means the words and sayings of Allah, the prophet and the Imams which contain deep truths that cause the overwhelming astonishment of the people. When explaining the difference between a Qowli and a Fi’li (practical) miracle one must say that a Fi’li miracle is both confined to time and place and is usually for normal people, because normal people usually deal with physical things more, but a Qowli miracle is not confined to a certain time and remains for all times and is for the elite.

[9] One of the miracles of the prophet was splitting the moon in to two.

[10] In the sermon known as Qasi’ah of the Nahjul-Balagha, Imam Ali explains the miracle of splitting the tree

[11] Qasas:76-81.

[12] Baqarah:50.

[13] Shams:11-15.

[14] Aal Imran:49.

[15] In his letter to Uthman Bin Hanif the Imam makes mention of this issue and says: “وَ اللَّهِ مَا قَلَعْتُ بَابَ خَیْبَرَ وَ رَمَیْتُ بِهِ خَلْفَ ظَهْرِی أَرْبَعِینَ ذِرَاعاً بِقُوَّةٍ جَسَدِیَّةٍ وَ لَا حَرَکَةٍ غِذَائِیَّةٍ لَکِنِّی أُیِّدْتُ بِقُوَّةٍ مَلَکُوتِیَّةٍ وَ نَفْسٍ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا مُضِیئَة

[16] There are several kinds of annihilation (fanā’). First: The annihilation of the external, which is the annihilation of one’s acts. Second: The internal annihilation which is the annihilation of features and attributes Third: The annihilation of one’s essence and existence. See: Daneshgar, Ahmad, The Divan of Hafez with mystical commentary, pp. 144-145; Abu Sina, Abu Ali Husein bin Abdillah, al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat, with the commentary of Khajeh Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, vol. 3, maqamat al-arefin, pg. 390; Imam Khomeini, Chehel Hadith, pg. 382.

[17] Imam Hasan has said: “من عبد الله اعبد الله له کل شیء” “Whoever worships and obeys Allah, Allah will make everything obey him.” Tafsire Mansub be Imam Hasan Askari, vol. 1, pg. 327; Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 68, pg. 184.

[18]عبدی اطعنی حتی اجعلک مثلی”; Maleki Tabrizi, Mirza Jawad Agha, Asrar al-Salah, vol. 1, pg. 4 (introduction). Khu’i, Mulla Mustafa

[19]ابن آدم أنا غنی لا أفتقر أطعنی فیما أمرتک أجعلک غنیا لا تفتقر یا ابن آدم أنا حی لا أموت أطعنی فیما أمرتک أجعلک حیا لا تموت یا ابن آدم أنا أقول للشی‏ء کن فیکون، أطعنی فیما أمرتک أجعلک تقول لشی‏ء کن فیکون”; Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 90, pg. 376; Deylami, Hasan bin Abi al-Hasan, Irshad al-Qulub ila al-Sawab, vol. 1, pg. 75; Ibn Fahd al-Hilli, Jamaluddin Ahmad bin Muhammad, Uddah al-Da’i, pg. 310.

[20] Yusuf:22.

[21] See: HazanZadeh Amoli, Hasan, Mumidd al-Himam, pg. 657.

[22] See: Yathrebi, Yahya, Falsafeye Erfan, pg. 181.

[23]هو الولی الحمید”; Shura: 29.

[24]فاطِرَ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ أَنْتَ وَلِیِّی فِی الدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَة”; Yusuf:101.

[25]ما عِنْدَکُمْ یَنْفَدُ وَ ما عِنْدَ اللَّهِ باقٍ”; Nahl:96.

[26] See: HasanZadeh Amoli, Hasan, Ensane Kamel az Didgahe Nahjul-Balaghah, pp. 84-86.

[27] See: Kahf:64-78.

[28] Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 9, pg. 195; Makarem Shirazi, Nasir, Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 4, pg. 205; Kashani, Seyed Abbas, al-Makhazin, vol. 1, pg. 286.

[29] Nahjul-Balaghah, sermon 192.

[30] Mas’udi, Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, pg. 414.

[31] Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad, Musnad Ahmad, vol. 5, pg. 343; Madani Kabir, Seyed Ali Khan, Riyad al-Salekin, vol. 6, pg. 393; Sabzwari, Mulla Hadi, Sharh al-Asma’ al-Husnaa, pg. 552; Ibn Arabi, Muhyiddin, al-Futuhat (14 volume edition), vol. 13, pg. 137.

[32] Ra’d:43.

[33] This hadith has been narrated by a group of Sunni narrators and Quranic commentators with same or similar wording. For further explanation, see: Shushtari, Qadi Nurullah, Ihqaq al-Haqq, vol. 3, pp. 280 and 281.

[34] See: Makarem Shirazi, Nasir, Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 15, pg. 473; Musawi Hamedani, Seyed Muhammad Baqir, translation of al-Mizan, vol. 11 pg. 532.

[35]عَنْ أَبِی جَعْفَرٍ (ع) قَالَ إِنَّ اسْمَ اللَّهِ الْأَعْظَمَ عَلَى ثَلَاثَةٍ وَ سَبْعِینَ حَرْفاً وَ إِنَّمَا کَانَ عِنْدَ آصَفَ مِنْهَا حَرْفٌ وَاحِدٌ فَتَکَلَّمَ بِهِ فَخُسِفَ بِالْأَرْضِ مَا بَیْنَهُ وَ بَیْنَ سَرِیرِ بِلْقِیسَ حَتَّى تَنَاوَلَ السَّرِیرَ بِیَدِهِ ثُمَّ عَادَتِ الْأَرْضُ کَمَا کَانَتْ أَسْرَعَ مِنْ طَرْفَةِ عَیْنٍ وَ نَحْنُ عِنْدَنَا مِنَ الِاسْمِ الْأَعْظَمِ اثْنَانِ وَ سَبْعُونَ حَرْفاً وَ حَرْفٌ وَاحِدٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى اسْتَأْثَرَ بِهِ فِی عِلْمِ الْغَیْبِ عِنْدَه

[36] Kuleini, Muhammad bin Yaqub, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, pg. 229.

[37] Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 1, pg. 229.

[38] The book Negareshi Erfani, Falsafi va Kalami be Shakhsiyat va Qiyame Imam Husayn, is written by Qasem Tarkhan and published by Chandelier Press.

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