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Last Updated: 2015/05/17
Summary of question
The Quran is a miracle under the following three categories: miracle in terms of the words of the Quran, miracle in terms of the contents and miracle in terms of its bringer. How far does each of these aspects signify the divinity of the Quran?
question
The Quran is a miracle under the following three categories: miracle in terms of the words of the Quran, miracle in terms of the contents and miracle in terms of its bringer. How far does each of these aspects signify the divinity of the Quran?
Concise answer
Generally speaking, some of the categories of the miracles show that the Quran could not have been brought forth by anyone other than Allah. For instance, the Quran’s eloquence is unique and miraculous and this feature of the Quran is not particular to a special time or place since it is not and will not be possible for any human beings to have this method of expression but some forms of miracles such as the miracle in terms of the contents of the Quran signify that, in those days, they could not have been created by anyone other than Allah, Almighty.  That is only when we assume that all the information and knowledge in the Quran have been discovered and made available for mankind.  On the other hand, some of these miracles relate to the characteristics or attributes of the bringer of the Quran. That is to say, no unschooled or unlettered individual can ever produce such a book at any time. Other forms of miracle introduce the Quran as a miracle of the history for every layman and every scholar, regardless of time and place. These miracles are such that no one can ever bring forth the like of it.
Now we should see how far each category of miracles can prove the divinity of the Holy Quran.
The miracle in terms of the bringer of the Quran simply proves that the purports of the Quran are from Allah but it does not prove whether or not the words are from Him.[1] Now, if it is said: “The Messenger of Allah (S) could not have chosen those words arbitrarily or use those structures and phrases.  Hence, the words and passages as well as the structures are all divine. We would says: This saying, actually, emanates from the fact that the Quran is eloquent and expressive in a miraculous way.  The conclusion is that it is not considered to be miracle in terms of the bringer of the Quran except for when it is claimed that even though we may not be able to prove that such eloquence could not be possible from anyone other than Allah, at least, it was not possible on the part of the Messenger of Allah (S). With such a supposition, and for this very reason, we can conclude that the words, synthesis and structure of the Quran are also from Allah, the Exalted.
The four reasons that are mentioned in connection with the Quran being a miracle in terms of its contents,[2] can only prove the divine nature of the purport of the Quran.
As for the Quran being a miracle in terms of its words, the numerical miracle as well as the eloquence of the Quran proves that the words and structures of the Quran are also divine.[3] As well, they prove the divinity of those verses which are related to each other and which constitute a single context.  Additionally, how can one possibly prove the divinity of the verses that are together (even though they may not have a single context) as well as the emergence of chapters that are together and the revelation of the Quran which is in our hands?
An answer to this question is to be found generally in the history of the Quran.[4]
Some Sunni scholars and most orientalists have argued that the composition and compilation of the verses, the creation of Suras and their collection took place following the demise of the Holy Prophet (S).[5]
 

[1] There are some scholars who accept the same thing and say: “Although the purport of the Quran is divine, the words are from the Prophet (S) himself, whereas, in fact, the Muslim scholars from the early period of the Islamic history maintain that the difference between a Hadith Qudsi and the Quran is that the purport of the form is from God but the words are from the Prophet (S) while the Quran is from God in terms of both the words and meanings.
[2] See: "The Reasons for the Quran being a Miracle”, question 69.
[3] Perhaps, the fact that previous scholars were emphasizing over the Quran being a miracle in terms of eloquence was that they saw the radius of the significations of the Quran more than any other people could see.
[4] See, for example, the following books:  Zanjani, Abu Abdullah, Tarikh al-Quran; Ramyar, Mahmoud, Tarikh Quran; Hujjati, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir, A Research into the History of the Quran, Jalali, Naeini, Sayyid Mhammad Reza, History of the Composition of the Quran (Tarikh Jam’a Quran-e Karim).  
[5] Vide: Hadavi Tehrani, The Theological Foundations of Ijtihad (Mabani Kalami Ijtehad), p.52-53, Qom, Khana-e Khera Cultural Institute, first edition, 1377 (1998); The Compilation of the Quran, question, 71.
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