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Ranar Isar da Sako: 2012/04/19
Takaitacciyar Tambaya
A Wane lokaci tarihin musulunci ya fara?
SWALI
Yaushe ne aka samo asali tarihin musulunci?
Amsa a Dunkule
Bayan aiko Manzon Allah (s.a.w) zuwa lokacin da iyakancin zagayen fadin daular musulunci ta kasance a iyakancin wani yanki daga kasan saudiyya a yanzu, a sakamakon karancin adadin musulmai da kuma Karancin faruwar mihimman abubuwan (da za‘a ayi amfani da su a KirKiri tarihi), kari a kan cewa rashin tarihi ba ya nufin rashin samun mafarar da za’a dogara da ita wajen kiyaye zamani da abubuwan ke faruwa a cikinsa da auna shi da wanda ya gabace shi ba, kuma ba zai zama sanadin da zai kawo matsala ba, a shekara ta sha shida ne ko sha bakwai ko sha takwas bayan hijirar Manzon Allah (s.a.w) halifa na biyu ya tara sahhaban Annabi Muhammad  (s.a.w) don ya yi shawara da su kan wata matsala, bisa wannan a faDin yaKubi, wanda (ya rasu 292 bayen hijira) da Dabari (ya rasu 310 bayen hijira)  da Mas’udi (ya rasu 346 bayen hijira)  da inbi Asir (ya rasu 630 bayen hijira)  da Zahabi (ya rasu 748 bayen hijira), cewa halifa na biyu ya karBi shawar Imam Ali (a.s) kuma ra’ayin Imam Ali (a.s) kan lamarin shi ne mafarar tarihin musaulmai ya zama daga ranar da Manzo (s.a.w) ya yi hijira daga makka zuwa madina, kuma wannan ra’ayi ya sami karbuwar halifa da dukkanin waDanda suka halarci wannan shura (shawari).            
Amsa Dalla-dalla
Rubuta tarihin da sanin lokacin faruwar abubuwa na tarihi na da bukaruwa zuwa wani ma’unin da mafarar tarihin da za’a dogara da shi. A duk lokacin da muke son mu rubuta lokacin faruwar wata hadisa ta tarihi, abu na farko shi ne samun wata mafara da zamu dogara da ita da zata ayyana mana cewa a lokacin ko kewanen wane lokaci ne wannan abu ya faru a cikin tarihi, misali a lokacin da muke so mu san yaushe ne aka haifi Manzon Allah (s.a.w), ya zama dole mu auna lokacin haihuwarsa da wani lokacin a cikin tarihi, ma’ana mu ce Manzon musulunci (s.a.w) an haife shi a 17 ga rabu’ul auwal a shekarar giwa. A wajen yin bayanin wannan fararerren lamari na tarihi ya zama lalle mu zama muna da wata mafara ta tarihi wacce ita ce shekarar giwa, ma’ana an zaBi shekarar da aka halakar da rundunar Abarahata a matsayin mafarar tarihi.
Don haka yin amfani da tarihi a irin waDannan alaKoKi ya zama yana daga cikin abin da yake larura ne a rayuwa kuma yake da alaKa da zamantakewa. Bayan aiko Manzo (s.a.w) har zuwa wani lokaci daular musulunci ta kasance a iyakacin zagayen kasar saudiyya ne a yanzu kuma sakamakon takaitacciyar alaKar da ke tsakanin musulmai da kuma rashin faruwan wasu hadisoshi da suka shafi kowa, rashin tarihi be zama daidai da rashin zamani da kuma sanin mafarar da za’a jingina faruwan wannan lamarin da ita ba kuma rashin wannan be haifar da matsala ba. mafara tarihin tsibirin larabawa har kafin zuwa musulunci, ya banbanta tsakanin wannan al’umma zuwa waccen, misali babban waKi’ar nan ta rundunar Abrahata, da suka zo don su rusa ka’’aba (an kira wannan shekar da shekarar giwa sabo da Abrahata ya sa giwa ta rushe ka’aba amma ta ki) har ta kai ga Allah ya halakar da su, sun dauki wannana matsayin ma’anin da suke sanin zamani faruwar wani abu da shi.[1]
Bisa bayanan da dalilan da aka ambata a sama, bayan zuwan musulunci har zuwa wani lokaci musulmai ba su da takamememen wata mafara ta tarihi da suke dogara da ita, kuma a wani lokaci su kan yi amfani da ainihin shekarar nan ta giwa. Amma bayan da kasar musulunci ta kara faDi sosai a lokacin halifofi, kuma aka samar da gomnoni da ganarori na soji na hukuma masu yawan gaske, a wannan lokacin samun mafarar tarihin da za’a jingina da ita don tsara wasiku da gudanarwa da umarnin hukuma dss....da dukkanin alamu ya zam dole.
Bisa ga yanda litattafan tarihi suka naKalto Abumusal Ash’ari ya aikawa halifa na biyu wasika yana koka masa rashin kwana tarihi a jikin wasukar da halifa ya aika masa a baya, ya na mai cewa ya kai halifa wasuku suna zo man daga gare ka amma babu kwanan wata a cikinsu. [2]
Halifa na biyu a shekara ta sha shida[3] ko sha bakwai[4] ko sha takwas, bayan hijirar Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya tara sahabban Annabi (s.a.w) don ya tattauna wannan matsalar tare da su.
A wannan shawarin wasu sun ce mu dauki kwanan watan mu kamar yadda na farisawa yake, ma’ana mu rika auna fare-faren mu na tarihi da tarihin sarakunan farisawa, ma’ana mu ce kaza ya faru a zamanin hukumar sarki wane. Wasu kuma suka ce mu dauki kwanan watan mu kamar yadda na rumawa yake, kamar yanda mutanen rumawa suke yi mu riki tarihin iskandar makdoni, mu rika auna fare- faren mu da shi, duk sai aka Ki karbar wadannan ra’ayoyi a wajen tattanawar shurar,
Bisa yadda yaKubi ya fadi a cikin littafin sa na tarihi,  (ya rasu shekar ta 292)[5] da Dabari (ya rasu 310 bayan hijira)[6]  da Mas’udi (ya rasu 346 bayan hijira)[7]  da inbi Asir (ya rasu 630 bayan hijira)[8]  da Zahabi (ya rasu 748 bayan hijira),[9] cewa halifa na biyu ya karBi shawar Imam Ali (a.s) kuma ra’ayin Imam Ali (a.s) kan wannan lamarin shi ne mafarar tarihim musaulmai ya kamata ta zama daga ranar da Manzo (s.a.w) ya yi hijira daga makka zuwa madina. Daga nan sai aka zartar da wannan lamarin kuma halifa na biyu ya zaBe shi kuma aka yi umarni da a aiwatar da shi a wasuku da takardun na hukuma.
Bayan wannan lamari ya wakana sai ya zam dukkanin waKi’o’in muhimmai na musulunci wanda daga cikin har da  yakokin Manzon Allah (s.a.w), sai aka rika auna su da tarihi kuma aka ayyana lokacinsu musamman ma abubuwan da suka faru bayan hijirar Manzon Allah (s.a.w).
 
 

[1] Dabari, Muhammad  Dan jarir, tarikh Dabari, j 2 shafi 392, darul turas, bairut 1387.
[2] Maskubah, Ahmad Dan Muhammad , tajaribul umam, j 1shafi na 413, intisharat sarush, Tehran 1379.
[3] Zahabi Muhammad  Dan Ahmad, tarikhul islam, j 3 sh 16, darul kitabul arabi, bairut lubnon, 1413.
[4] Ibn kasir damashKi, imadul dini albidaya wal nihaya j 3 sh 207, darul fikir bairut, 1407.
[5] Ya’akubi, Ahmad bini abi ya’aKub tarihu ya’aKubi, j 2 sh 145, darul sadirat, bairut ba tarihin bugawa.
[6] Tarihul Dabari j 4 sh 38- 39.
[7] Mas’udi Ali Dan Husain, murujuzzahab, j 4 sh 300. Darul hijirah, Kum, 1409.
[8] Inbi asir Ali Dan inbi abi karam, alkamil fit tarih, j 1 sh 11 darul sadir bairut ba tarihin bugawa.
[9] Tarikhul islam j 3 sh 163.
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