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Ranar Isar da Sako: 2006/05/21
Takaitacciyar Tambaya
ina aka samo asalin madogarar gabatuwar jagorancin malami
SWALI
ina aka samo asalin madogarar gabatuwar jagorancin malami
Amsa a Dunkule

Mas'alar jagorancin malami a matsayin shugaban al'umma a musulunci wani hakki ne da aka sanya shi ga wanda ya kai matakin ijtihadi. Wasu suna ganin lamari ne sabo a cikin fikirar musulunci, sai dai jagorancin malami a matsayin wani umarni na mai shari'a mai tsarki a lokacin boyuwar Imami ma'asumi (a.s) wani abu ne wanda yake sananne tun farko a cikin dokokin musulunci a bisa fikihun mazhabin ahlul-baiti (a.s).

Sheikh mufidi wanda yake daga cikin manyan malamai na fikihu a tarihin shi'a a karni na hudu da na biyar hijira, ya kawo bayanai masu kima da daraja game da lamarin shugabancin malami sama da shekara dubu yanzu.

Amsa Dalla-dalla

Mas'alaar jagorancin malami da ya kai matakin ijtihadi a matsayin mai tafiyar da lamarin al'umma a wajan wasu masana tarihi na wannan zamani a fikirar musulunci da suke da'awar cewa wannan lamarin ya faru ne a musulunci a kasa da karni biyu kacal wata da'awa ce maras tushe. Kuma wannan da'awar ta cewa malami bayan fatawa da alkalanci yana da ikon kafa hukuma da jagorantar al'umma da kafa hukuma babu wani daga cikin malaman shi'a ko sunna da ya yi ta a tsawon tarihin musulunci da'awa ce kawai maras tushe. Masu wannan da'awar sun yi maganar cewa; a karni biyu ne da suka gabata mulla ahmad naraki da aka fi sani da fadhil kashani wanda ya yi zamani da sarki fathiAli Shah Kajar ne ya kawo wannan mas'alar domin ya samu taimako da bayar da kariya ga wannan sarki na wannan zamanin[1].

Sai dai abin dubawa a nan idan malam Naraki yana son ya karfafi sarkin zamaninsa to sai ya yi yadda malaman da suka gabace shi suka yi na karfafa mulkin sarakunan zamunansu, ta hanyar riko da cewa "sarki inuwar Allah ce"[2], ya kuma dabbaka su ga sarkin domin kare mulkinsa, da bayar da fatawar cewa biyayya ga sarki wani wajibi ne na shari'a[3]. Ba ya karfafi jagorancin malami ba kan al'umma wanda shi sarkin ba malami ba ne balle ya zama karfafa gareshi.

Idan aka ce shi a farko ya tabbatar da wannan matsayi ne ga malami, sannan sai kuma ya zama shi a matsayinsa na malami ya mayar da mulkin sarki na halal ta hanyar bayar da fatawarsa ta biyayya ga sarki ne, sai mu ce: Me ye amfanin wannan kewaye-kewayen, don me ya sa kai tsaye bai yi nuni da cewa sarki inuwar Allah ba ce, bai yi nuni da wajabcin biyayya gareshi ba?!.

Idan kuwa akwai wasu masu tammanin cewa yana da kwadayin jagorancin ne, sai domin ya samu mafita ya kirkiro wannan kissa ya danganta ta ga musulunci, to dole ne mu duba mu ga rayuwarsa da iliminsa, da kafuwarsa a sanin shari'a, na wannan malamin kyawawan halaye, masanin wakoki, arifi masanin Allah madaukaki, sai mu ga irin wadannan tuhumomin cikin sauki sun fi dacewa da masu kitsa su fiye da wanda ake kitsa wa su.

A bisa gaskiya lamarin jagorancin malami da tafiyar da hukuma a bisa koyarwar shi'anci wani abu ne da yake sananne a koyarawar musulunci a zamanin boyuwar Imami ma'asumi (a.s), tafiyar da lamarin hukuma wani abu ne da mai shari'a ya dora shi kan malami a lokacin boyuwar Imami ma'asumi (a.s), babu wani kokwanto ko shakku a ciki.

Don haka babu wani dogon bahasi da zamu kan wannan saboda kasancewarsa lamari da aka sallama kansa. Sai dai zamu yawaita bincike ne cikin abubuwan da suka kewaye wannan lamari da babau makawa ga bincike game da su.

Sheikh Mufid (333 ko 338 - 413) daga manyan malamai na tarihin shi'anci a karni na hudu da na biyar ya yi bayani masu fadi kan muhimmancin jagorancin malami bayan boyuwar Imami ma'asumi (a.s), a matsayin wanda zai jagoranci al'umma a hukuma musulunci a lokacin boyuwar Imami (a.s), kuma wannan bayanai sun haura shekaru dubu yanzu haka, duk da kuwa wasu suna neman kawo cewa asalin lamarin jagorancin malami ga daula wanin abu ne da yake sabon lamarin a musulunci bisa jahilci ko da gangan[4].

Bayan sheikh Mufid malamai masu yawa sun biyo baya wadanda suka yi bayani game da jagorancin malami ga al'ummar musulmi a hukumar musulunci, muna iya kawo wasu daga cikin kamar Abssalah Halbi (m. 448 H), da Ibn Idris alHilli (m. 598 H), da muhakkik alHilli (m. 676 H), da Muhakkik karaki (m.940 H), maula Ahmad Mukaddis Ardabili (m.990 H), Jawad bn Muhammad Husaini Amuli (m. 1226 H), Mulla Ahmad Naraki (m.1245 H), Mir Fattah AbdulFattah bn Husaini Maragi (m. 1266-12774 H), sheikh Muhammad Hasan Najafi, mai Jawahir (m. 1266 H), sheikh Murtadha ansari (m 1281 H), Haji Oga Ridha Hamdani (m. 1322 H), sayyid Muhammad Baharul Ulum (m 1326 H), Ayatullahi Burujardi (1382 H), Ayatullahi sheikh Murtadha Ha'iri (m 1362 HSh), Imam Khomaini (m. 1368 HSh), gaba dayansu duk sun yi nuni da wannan[5].

 

Karin bayani:

1. Mahdi Hadawi Tehrani, Wilayat wa Diyanat, Mu'assar Al'adun Khaneye Khirad, Kum, bugu na biyu, 1380.

 


[1]. [1]. Mahdi Ha'iri Yazdi, hikmat wa hukumat, s 67 da 178.

[2]. Biharul anwar: majlisi; j 72, s 354, h 69.

[3]. Sarkin inuwar Allah ce a bayan kasa: wannan ya yi kama da son ran sarakuna, kuma bisa tsarin musulunci wanda ya cancanci wannan siffa shi ne wanda yake jagora malami.

[4]. Fayel: wilayate fakih wa sheikh Mufid, tambaya ta 255.

[5]. Fayel: wilayate fakih wa ulama, tambaya 256 da 257.a

 

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