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Ranar Isar da Sako: 2008/12/03
Takaitacciyar Tambaya
Iso in sami masaniya kan rayuwar Mikdadu dan Aswad shin zaku aiko min da halayyar rayuwarsa?
SWALI
Idan kuna da hali ina son bayani kan halayyar rayuwar Mikdadu dan Aswad shin zaku turo mini da cikakken bayanin halayensa don ba ni da wata masaniya sosai dangane da wannan babban bawan Allah?
Amsa a Dunkule
A shekata ta sha shida bayan shekarar giwa aka haifi Mikdadu dan Aswad, kuma an san shi da sunan Mikdadu dan Aswad bakinde. Kuma sunan mahaifinsa Amru kuma shi ne mutum na goma sha uku a musulunta, ta wannan janibi yana daga cikin farko- farkon musulunta kuma yana daga cikin mutum bakwai da suka fara shelanta musuluntarsu, kuma sau biyu yana yin hijira sannan an san shi da (ma’abocin hijira biyu) a karo na farko bisa umarnin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sun yi hijira zuwa Habasha, a karo na biyu kuma ya yi hijira zuwa Madina.
Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya aura wa Mikdadu dan Aswad ‘yar baffansa, Dhab’aru ‘yar zubairu dab Abdulmuddalib, wanda a sakamakon wannan auren an haifi yaron da aka sawa suna Mu’ubad da yarinyar da aka sawa suna karimah.
Mikdadu dan Aswad a halarci yakoki masu yawa a lokacin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) kuma a yakin uhudu yana daga cikin ‘yan tsurarun da suka dake ba su matsa ko ina ba suna kare Manzon Allah (s.a.w) da rayukansu.
Bayan da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya yi wafati, Mikdadu dan Aswad ya wanzu wajen kare walayar alawiyanci kuma ya tsaya kyam. An rawaito ruwayoyi masu yawa kan falalarsa wamda a cikin wadannan ruwayoyin an siffanta Mikdadu dan Aswad da masoyin Allah, wanda aljanna take shaukin zuwa gare shi, ma’abocin imani mai karfi, kuma shi daya ne daga cikin rukunai guda hudu, ya rasu a shekara ta 33 bayan hijira, a yanki juruf, aka bunne shi a ann.
Amsa Dalla-dalla
An haifi mikdadu dan aswad a shekara ta sha shida da sherar giwa, ma’ana an haife shi a shekara ta 24 kafin aiko Manzon Allah (s.a.w), sunan babansa Amru, da yake Amru ya fito daga kabilar da aka fi sani da (Kindah), wacce ke zaune a wani yanki na garin Hadhrimaut (wajejen Yemen), kuma ya kasance ya shiga cikin wasu daga cikin alkawarin alfarma na kare juna da kabilun yankin, wani lokaci a kan kira shi da Mikdadu dan Aswad Al-hadhrimi (bahadhrame) ko kuma Kindi (Bakinde). [1]
Mikdadu dan Aswad ya yi hijira sau biyu ta wannan janibin an kasance ana kiransa da (wanda ya yi hijira biyu) karo na farko tun farkon aike Manzon Allah (s.a.w) wasu daga cikin musulmai sun yi hijira a karkashin umarnin Manzo (s.a.w) saboda tsanance-tsanancen da suke fuskacanta daga makiya wanda tsananin ya kai tsanani, sai suka saci ido suka yi hijira zuwa habasha Mikdadu dan Aswad na daga cikin gungu na uku da suka daga cikin musulman da suka yi hijira zuwa habasha kuma bayan wani lokaci sai ya dawo makka, kuma a Makka ma ya kasance tare da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) har lakacin lamarin yin hijiwa zuwa madaina ya taso a wannan karon ma na biyu ya yi hijira zuwa Madina wanda lokacin hijirarsa zuwa madina bai zama sananne ba a tarihi, amma bisa alamomi masu yawa da a ka dogara da su ya tabbata cewa a shekara ta farko daga jijira a watan shawwal a lokacin da Ubu ubaida ya fito yaki Mikdad ya hade da su sannan ya yi hijira zuwa Madina. [2]
Auren Mikdadu dan Aswad:
Imam Ridha yana cewa jibril ya sauka wajen Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya fada masa cewa Allah ya aiko maka da sallama (yana gaishe ka) sannan ya ce: saurayi da budurwa tamkar ‘ya’yan itaciya suke duk lokacin da ‘ya’yan itaciya suka nuna ya zama lalle a thinke su a cinye in ba haka ba zafin rana zai lalata su, idan aka aurar da saurayi da budurwa zasu kubuta daga farna da fitina. Bayan haka ta faru sai Manzo (s.a.w) ya hau mimbari ya isar wa da al’umma maganar Allah Ta'ala kuma ya gaya musu abin da jibril ya isar, sai suka tambayi Manzo (s.a.w) da suwa za’a hada mu? Su wa zamu aura? Sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ce muminai (kufu’in) wato tsararrakun jina ne, bayan nan sai ya sakko daga mimbari domin ya daura auren Mikdadu da Dhba’atu ‘yar ammnsa (dayar Zubairu dan Abdulmaddalibi).
Dhab’aru na daga cikin sanannun mantan da suka rigaya a musulunci, kuma ta yi hijira zuwa madina tare da musulmai, kuma an karbo hadisan Manzo (s.a.w) goma sha daya daga gare ta, tare da matsayin da Dhaba’atu take da shi a mahangar kabila da nasaba da manyantaka amma sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya bada ita ga Mikdad, sannan ya kara da cewa hakika ban aurar da ‘yar baffa na Dhaba’atu ga Mikdadu ba face sai don mutane su dauki al’amarin aure da sauki, duk muminin da zai aurar da dayarsa kada ya sanya matsayi da nasaba ya zame masa ma’auni (wajen zaba mata miji). [3].
Mikdad na da yara biyu maza da daya mace mai suna karima wadanda sun rawaito ruwayoyi daga babansu daya dan nasa namiji mai suna mu’ubad wanda ya kasance daga cikin mabiya A’isha a wannan yakin ne aka kashe shi. [4] 
Mikdadu ya halarci dukkanin yakokin da suka afku a lokacin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) kuma ya yi yaki a matsayin gorzon sojan da a cikin sojojin shi ne ke kare jagoran jaki, hakika rawar da ya taka a fagen daga a yakin badar da uhudu ta haskaka shafin tarihi tas, yana daga cikin mahaya doki na gaba-gaban farkon wadanda suka kara da makiya. A yakin badar mutam biyu ne mahaya doki dayansu zubairu ne dayan kuma Mikdadu. [5]. A yakin uhudu ma Mikdad ya taka rawar gani ta yanda a karshe- karshen yakin a lokacin da dukkanin musulmai suka ranta a na kare, bisa yanda manyan maruwaita tahiri suka nakalto, ba wanda ya wanzu tare da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sai Ali (s.a) da Zubairu da Abudujanata da andaullahi dan Mas’udu da Mikdadu.[6]
Bayan wafatin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) mikdad na daga cikin daidaikun da suka tsaya suka tabbata a bayan gaskiya da hakkin Ali da shugabancinsa (a.s) kuma ya wanzu kan hakan kuma abubuwan da suka faru marasa kyua bayan wafatin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) bai sa kafarsa ta girgiza ba, kuma a irin wannan mataki mai wahalar gaske mikdad da salman da Abuzarri ba su taba barin Ali (a.s) ba kuma ba su taba tafiya wajen wasu ba, a kan haka ne Abi bikiri hadrumi yake cewa: Imam Bakir (a.s) ya ce: mutane sun juya baya ma manufiofi da tafarkin Manzo (s.a.w) bayan wafatinsa in banda mutum uku, Salman, da Abuzarri da Mikdad. [7].
An yi bahasi dalla - dalla kan falalar mikdadu da kamalarsa kuma an kawo ruwayoyi masuu yawa wadanda wasu daga cikinsu sun hada da:-
1. An cirato daga Manzon Allah (s.a.w) yana cewa: Allah Ta'ala ya umace ni da in so mutum hudu kuma ya bani labara cewa yana son su sai aka tambaye shi cewa su waye wadannan mutanen hudu? Sai ya fadi sau uku yana maimaitawa: Ali (a.s) yana daga cikinsu sauran mutum ukun kuma su ne Abuzarri   da Salman da Mikdad. [8]
2. Imam Sadik (a.s) yana cewa soyayyar mutanen da basu kaucewa hanya ba bayan wafatin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) wajibi ce bayan nan sai ya kirgo wani adadi daga cikinsu wadanda su ne Salman da Abuzarri da Mikdadu.[9]
3. An rawaito daga Anas dan maliki cewa wata rana Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ce: aljanna na shauki zuwa mutane hudu daga al’umma ta, lokacin da Imam Ali (a.s) ya ambayi Manzon Allah (s.a.w) kawa wadannan mutanen sai ya ce: na rantse da Allah kai ne na farkonsu kuma sauran mutanen uku su ne Mikdadu, Salman da Abuzarri. [10]
4. An rawaito daga Imam Sadik (a.s) yana cewa: imani na da darajoji goma, Mikdadu na daraja ta takwas, Abuzarri na daraja ta tara shi kuma Salman na daraja ta goma. [11]
5. daga cikin isdilahin da ya yadu tsakani malaman hadisi ma masana tarihin musulunci shi ne isdilahin rukunai hudu, abin da ya shahara a cikinsu kuma aka san shi shi ne cewa rukunai hudu su ne Salman da Mikdad da Abuzarri da Ammar. A lokacin da malaman hadisi da masanansa suka ga cewa an manmata yabon wadannan zababbu guda hudu da kala-kala na yabo a wajeje daban daban, a cikin hadisan Ahlulbaiti (a.s) ko kuma su ka ga cewa an jiginawa wadannan bayin Allah duk wata falala da daraja, sai ya zama kenan a daraja bayan Imamai (a.s) ba su da tsara, ta wannan fuskar ne aka ba su lakabin tushe ko kuma ginshikai hudu masu kwari na imani kuma aka sa musu suna ko aka kira su da rukunai guda hudu. [12]
6. Isdilahin Shi'a (Kalmar Shi'a) ta yadu a zamanin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) kuma farkon wadanda ake kira Shi'a sanannu ne, wadanda su ne: Salman, Abuzarri, Mikdad da Ammar. [13]
7. Mikdad na daga cikin wadanda suke sauke nau’in ladan isar da sakon manzanci kuma wadanda suka cika alkakarin ayar soyayya.
Ya zo a cikin ayar soyayya, {kul la as’alukum alaihi ajran illal mawaddata fil kurbaa} ya Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ka gaya mutane cewa ni ba na neman wani samko ko lada daga gare ku kan manzancin da na zo muku da shi ba face kauna ga makusantana. [14]  da yawa daga cikin malaman ahlussuna da na Shi'a sun rawaito wannan ma’anar cewa ladan da za’a bawa Manzon Allah (s.a.w) na wahalar da ya sha wajen isar mana da sakon musulunci shi ne a so kuma a kaunaci mutan gidansa. Imam Sadik (a.s) yana cewa lokacin da wanna ayar ta sauka Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya gaya wa mutane cewa: Allah madaukaki ya ba ni wani hakki da ya dora shi a kansu shin zaku sauke wannan hakkin? ba wanda ya bawa Manzon Allah (s.a.w) amsa, rana ta biyu ma Ma’akin Allah (s.a.w) ya kara tambayarsu wannan tambayar ba wanda ya ba shi amsa, a rana ta uku ma ya kara maimaita wannan maganar kuma ba wanda y aba shi amsa, a wannan lokacin sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ce wannan hakkin ba zinare da azufa ba ne kuma ba kayan ci da sha ba ne, sai suka ce menene kenan? Sai ya karanto musu ayar sannan ya ce Allah ne ya saukar da ita, sai suka ce zamu bi umarnin wannan ayar.
Imam Sadik (a.s) ya kara da cewa na rantse da Allah ba su sauke nauyin wannan ayar ba in ban da mutune bakwai wadanda su ne: Salman, Abuzarri, Mikdad, Ammar, Jabir dan Abdullahi, da wani yaro da ke gidan Manzon Allah (s.a.w) da kuma Zaidu dan Arkam. Wadannan mutanen su mutane bakwai wadanda dari bisa dari su ne wadanda suka cika alkawarin kaunar Ahlulbaiti kuma suka sauke nauyin ladan isar da sakon manzanci Manzo Muhammad (s.a.w) kamar yanda ya kamata.[15]
8. Mikdad sau da yawa ya kishiyanci matsayar halifofi kuma ya taka rawa wajen kare hakkin makusantan gidan isma da tsarki (a.s).[16]
Ya yi wafati a shekara ta 33 bayan hijira yana dan shekara saba’in, a jurf (wani yanki ne mai fadi da yake da nisan farsikhi daya daga madina ta bangaren Sham wanda wajen ya kasance an rike shi a matsayin sansanin sojojin musulunci. [17]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 

[1] Muhammadi, Muhammad , simayi Mikdad, shafi na 12 da 23, ba tarihin bugawa.
[2] Mamakani, Abdullahi, kamusul rijal, j 9 sha na 114, ba tarihin bugawa.
[3] Allama majlisi, biharul anwar, j 6 shafi na 779 madba’ar kwamfani, ba a sa tarohon bugawa ba.  
[4] Kummi, shekh Abbas, muntahal amaal, sh 161 intisharati bihzad, 1381.
[5] Allama amini, al-gadir, j 6 sh 116.
[6] Dabakatu ibni sa’ad j 3 shafi na 114 ta hanyar nadaltowar muhammadi, Muhammad , simayi Mikdad, shafi na 37.
[7] Kummi, shekh Abbas, muntahal amaal shafi na 160.
[8] Masdarin da ya gabata kwabo da kwabo.
[9] Allama majilisi, biharul anwar, j 6 shafi na 749, ba a sa tarohon bugawa ba.
[10] Kummi, shekh Abbas, muntahal aamaal, shafi na 160.
[11] Hayatul kulub, j 2 shafi na 883, ta hanyar nadaltowar muhammadi, Muhammad , simayi Mikdad, shafi na 61.
[12] Masdarin da ya gabata kwabo da kwabo, shafi na 90 da 91; da kummi shekh Abbas, muntahal, shafi, 160.
[13] Masdarin da ya gabata kwabo da kwabo shafi na 91.
[14] Surar shura, 22.
[15] Muhammadi, Muhammad , simayi Mikdad, shafi na 96, ba tarihin bugawa.
[16] Masdarin da ya gabata kwabo da kwabo, shafi na 112.
[17] Masdarin da ya gabata kwabo da kwabo, shafi na 123.
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