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Ranar Isar da Sako: 2018/07/07
Takaitacciyar Tambaya
Salmanul Farisi tun daga farko har zuwa lokacin da ya karbi musulunci bisa wane tafarki ya shude kuma daga karshe mai ya faru?
SWALI
Ina son Tarihin rayuwar Salmanul farisi?
Amsa a Dunkule
Salmanul Farisi ya kasance dan manumin iraniyawa ne shi, wanda ya ga Manzon Allah (s.a.w) a birnin Madina kuma ya yi imani da shi sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya siye shi ya ‘yanta shi.
A lokacin rayuwar Manzon Allah (s.a.w) Salman ya kasance daya daga cikin manyan sahabbai kuma wadanda ke da kusanci da shi har ta kai ga Manzon Allah (s.a.w)  ya ce: Salmaun daya ne daga cikinmu Ahlulbaiti (a.s), kuma bayan wafantanin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya kasance daga cikin mabiya Ali (a.s) na gani kashe ni.
An yi sabani kan shekarar da Salman ya yi wafati kuma wannan sabani ya faru ne tsakanin daga shekara ta 33 zuwa ta 37 bayan hijira. 
Amsa Dalla-dalla
Salman daya ne daga cikin mafi girman sahaban Manzon Allah (s.a.w), kuma an yi sabani kan sunansa na asali[1] wasu sun ce sunansa ruzbeh sunan mahaifinsa kuma “Khashnudan ko Khashnuzan” [2] don haka wasu ma sun nakalto cewa “Buzkhashan” [3] ne sunan mahaifinsa, kuma bisa abin da ruwaya ta nuna cewa bayan da Salmanu ya musulunta Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ne ya zaba masa suna [4], ana yi masa alkunya da Abu Abdullahi (baban Abdullahi) [5] mafiya yawan malaman tarihi sun tafi a kan cewa an haife shi a wani kauye mau suna jayyu a birnin Isfahan,[6] wasu kuma sun ce a Ramu-har-muzu aka haife shi. [7]
Kuma an yiwa Salman lakabi da Salmanul Farisi da Salman dan Musulunci da kuma Salmanun alkahiri. [8]
Amma dangane da shekarar da aka haifi Salmanul farisi ba a sami wani da ya zo na bayani a litattfan tarihi da na rayuwar mazaje ba.
Baban Salman ya kasance manomi ne Ba’iraniye.[9] A zamanin mulkin sasaniyawa a wannan zamanin mutanen da ke da filaye da gonakin noma a kauyuka da birane ana kiransu ma (dihkan)[10] wato manoma, akwai ruwayoyin da suke Magana kan rayuwar Salman tun lokacin kafin zuwan musulunci,  wadanda ake karantar da su ta hanyar hakaitowa, kuma abin da aka karfaf daga abin da ya zo a cikin wadannann ruwayoyin cewa zuciyar neman gaskiyar da Salman ke da ita ce ta sa shi yin tafiye-tafiye masu nisa don neman addini na gaskiya.
Bisa asasin wannan ruwayar an ce lokacin da Salman yana dan yaro ya kasance mabiyin addinin Zartush, zuwa lokacin da ya sami labarin addinin Annabi Isa (a.s) sai ya karbe shi sannan ya nufaci yankin sham, don ya rabauta da dalibta a wajen Manyan malaman wannan addini. Baban Salman saboda alakar da yake da ita da shi ya kasance yana tsare shi a gida yana ganin cewa tafiyar da yake son yi zuwa Sham wani nau’i ne na kokarin guduwa, a Sham ya kasance mai yi wa fada hidima kuma a kokarin sa na ya ga ya amfana ya yI tafiye-tafiye zuwa garuruwan Mosil da Nasib da kuma Umuriyya. [11] 
Daga Umriyya sai Salman ya yi nufin yin safara zuwa hijaz kuma ka sani cewa ya tafi cen ne ta hanyar shiryarwa malamansa na masihawa kan cewa annabin karshen zamani ya kusa bayyana a wannan kasar, kuma ya kasance ya taho tare da karabka (fataken) kabila Kalbu sai suka mayar da shi bawa sannan aka siyar da shi a hijaz a matsayin bawa, sai ya zama yaron wani mutum daga yahudawan banu kuraiza sannan ya taho da shi Madina. [12]
Musuluntar Salman
Salmanu ya musulunta[13] a lokacin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya yi hijara zuwa madina sa’adda ya shiga madina a shekara ta 13 [14] da aiko Manzon Allah (s.a.w), dama ya ji ance daya daga cikin alamomin annabin karshen zamani ita ce baya cin sadaka amma yana cin kyauta kuma a tsakanin kafadunsa akwai tambari annabta, daga nan ne, a lokacin day a cika karo da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) a unguwar kuba sai sai ya bawa abinci da sunan sadaka sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya bawa sahabban sa wannan sadakar amma shi bai ci ba. 
Sai Salman ya dauki wannan a matsayin alama ta farko, sai wani lokacin kuma ya kuma ganin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sai ya kuma ba shi abinci da sunan kyauta sai ya lura cewa a wannan karon ya ci. 
A karo na uku sai  ya ga Manzon Allah (s.a.w) a taron raka gawar wani daga cikin sahabbansa sai ya yi masa sallama sannan ya rika tafiya daf da shi a bayansa don ya ga alama ta uku da yake Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya san me Salman yake so ya cimma sai ya yi gefe da tufafin sa ta yadda Salman zai iya ganin tambarin annabtar da ke tsakanin kafadunsa biyu, a wannan lokacin ne Salman ya runguwa Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sannan ya sunbanci jikinsa, kuma ya bayyana msuluncinsa. [15]
Sai ya sayi Salman daga hannun uban gadansa sannan ya ‘yanta shi kuma Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya biya kudin nakadan. [16]
Muhimman Ayyukan Salman
  1. Shawarar kan lamarin yaki: Ya halarci yakokin farkon musulunci kuma tun bayan yakin gwalalo ba wani yaki da ya kubuce masa [17] kuma shi ne ya bada shawarar[18] a gina gwalalo nesa da garin madina a lokacin yakin handak (gwalalo), a wannan yakin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ba wa duk mutum goma umarnin su haka rami kafa arba’in, saboda karfin jikin da Salman yake da shi dukkanin Muhajarai da Ansarawa sun kasance suna jayayya kan cewa Salman na su ne. muhajirun sun yi imani da cewa tun da Salman hijira ya yi daga Iran kuma daga wani waje ya zo to za a sa shi a cikinsu, Ansarawa kuma suna cewa tun da har a lokacin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya shigo Yasriba Salman ya kasance a cikinta to za a lissafa shi a cikin ansarawa. [19]
Wasu sun rawaito cewa a yayin yakin Da’ifa a nan ma Salman ya bada shawarar a yi amfani da majaujawa kuma Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya bad a umari a yi amfani da ita. [20]
A lokacin bude Iran, umar ya nada shi shi da huzaifa su zama su ne na kan gaban yaki, wato majaban kuma masu jan ragama a wajen yaki. [21] a yakin Mada’in Salman ne ya jagoranci tattaunawa da rundunar Iraniyawa daga bangaren rundunar musulmai. [22] 
  1. Sabawa abin da ya faru a sakifa: Salman na daga cikin wadanda suka sabawa abin da ya faru a sakifa. lokacin da Salman da mikdad da Abuzarri da Ubadatu bin Samit da Abu-haisamul Juhani da Huzaifa da Ammar suka ji abin da ya farua a sakifa da daddre sai suka taru don su tattauna kan lamarin halifanci don su bi kadin lamarin a cikin tarayyar shurar muhajirai [23]. Salman yana da hujjoji masu yawa kan sabawarsa da wannan abu da ya faru.[24] Sananne ne cewa a lokacin da yake tsangwaman wasu daga cikin sahabban Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ce da Abubakar “kun aikata kuma ba ku aikata ba[25]” ma’anar wannan jimlar ita ce kun zabi halifa amman ba ku aiwatar da umarnin Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ba, sannan ya ci gaba da cewa “ da ace sun yi wa Ali (a.s) caffa da albarka ta lullube su ta sama da ta kasa”. [26]
Salmanul farisi  a lokacin halifanci Umar dan Khaddabi ya zama gomnan Mada’in a karkashin halifancin Umar din, an ce kafin ya karbin wannan matsayin sai da ya nemi izini daga imam Ali, bayan haka sannan ya karbi mukamin ya kasance gomnan wannan garin har lokacin da zai yi wafati, [27] kason Salman daga baitul mali a matsayinsa na gomnan mada’in dirhami dubu biyar ne wadanda ya kasance yana sadakar da su, kuma ya kasance yana ciyar da kansa ta hanyar saka tufafi da hannunsa yana siyarwa yana cin abinci. [28]
 
Salman A Bakin Manzon Allah (S.A.W) Da Kuma Imamai (A.S)
Mafi shaharar ruwayar da aka rawaito daga Manzon Allah (s.a.w) da take bayani kan Salmanu, ita ce “Salmanu daya daga cikinmu ne Ahlulbaiti (a.s)” [29]. an cirato a wasu ruwayoyi cewa wata rana Salmanu ya shiga masallaci sai wadanda suke nan suka ba shi mazauni a kurya saboda girmamawa a gare shi, amma Umar saboda dalilin cewa shi ba balarabe ba ne sai ya fusata saboda wannan abin da ya gani, yayin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya ga abin da ya faru sai ya tafi ya hau kan mimbari ya gabatar da huduba wacce a cikin ta ya yi nuni kan cewa mutane ba su da fifiko kan junansu a karkashin mahangar kabilanci ko launi fata: “Salman daya ne daga cikinmu Ahlulbaiti (a.s)”. [30]
Wannan hadisin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) ya fada an ruwaito shi ma a wasu ruwayoyin. [31] 
A wani hadidsi da aka karbo daga  Manzon Allah (s.a.w) kan falalar Salman an nakalt cewa: [32] daga cikin hadisan Manzo (s.a.w) akwai cewa aljanna na shaukin Ali da Ammar da Salman. [33] da ma wani hadisin da bisa asasinsa ne Allah Ta”ala ya kallafawa (ya wajabta wa) Annabi (s.a.w) ya so Ali da Salman da Mikdad da Abu zarri. [34]
Kamar yadda aka cirato wasu ruwayoyi sun zo daga bakin Imamai tsarkaka (a.s) kan yabon Salman[35] wanda daga cikinsu akwai fadin Imam Ali (a.s) da yake cewa Salmanul Farisi shi da wasu daga cikin mabiyan Imam wanda daga cikinsu akwai Abuzarri da Ammar da Mikdad mutane ne masana wadanda Allah Ta”ala yake saukar da Arziki ga bayi saboda su.[36]  Sannan Imam Ali (a.s) ya siffanta Salman da cewa mutum ne shi da ya san ilimin farko da na karshe. [37] a wata ruwaya da aka karbo daga imam Bakir (a.s) yana cewa wani lokaci a wani majlisi wasu muatane suna yin magana kan Salman sai Imam Ali (a.s) ya katse zancen su ya na mai fadin cewa kada ku kira Salman da Salmanul farisi lalle ku kira shi da Salmanul Muhammadi saboda shi daya ne daga cikin daidaikun mu Ahlulbaiti (a.s) ne shi. [38]
Wafatinsa
An sami babani kan shekarar da Salman ya yi wafati kuma an nakalto shekarar wafatinsa tsakanin shekara ta 33 da ta 37 bayan hijira. [39] wasu ruwayoyin suna cewa suna nakalto cewa ya rasu ne a lokacin halifancin Usman wasu kuma suna cewa ya rasu ne a watannin da suka biyo bayan halifancin Usman. [40]
Bisa dogaro da abin da aka cirato ya tabbata cewa Salman ya yi tsawon kwana zuwa haddin da wasu suke rawaito cewa ya rayu tsawon shekara 250 ko 350. [41] haka ma a wasu majiyoyi da aka samu ya zo cewa bayan wafatin Salman Imam Ali (a.s) ya fita daga Madina ya tafi Mada’in, ya yi masa wanka da likkafani kuma ya yi masa salla ya binne shi.[42] Kuma bisa bayani na biyu kan wafatinsa tabbas wafatin na sa zai kasance bayan shekara ta 35 bayan hijira.   
 
 

[1] Dabari,a abu jafar Muhammad  dan jarir, tarihul umamu wal muluk, (tarikhul dabari), [ 3 shafi na 171, beruit, darul turas, bugu na biyu shaekara ta 1387. H.K.  
[2] Ibni babawaihi, Muhammad  dan Ali a cikin kamaluddin wa tamamin nima, j 1 shafi na 165, Tehran, islamiyya, bugu na biyu, 1395. Madni, Ali Ridha bin Ahmad, aldarajatul rafi’a fi dabakatul Shi”a, j 1, shafi na 199, bairut muassar wafa , bugu na biyu , shakara ta 1983. Mazandarani, ha’iri, Muhammad  dan isma’il a cikin muntahal makal fi ahwalul rijal, j 3 shafi 368, kum, muassatu Ahlulbaiti (a.s) buugu na farko, shekara ta 1416.
[3] Ibni asir jazari, Ali dan Muhammad, usudul gaba, fi ma’arifatul sahaba, j 2 shafi na 265, bairut darul fikri sekara ta 1409. Tarihul umama wal muluk, (tarikhul Dabari), j 3 shafi na 171.
[4]Mamakani, Abdullahi, tankihul makaki fi ilmmir rijali j 2kisimi na daya  shasfi na 45, bugun rihili.  
[5] Usudul gaba fi ma’arifat l Sahaba j 2 shafi na 265.
[6] Adreshin da ya gabata da kuma Ibni sa’ad, muhammaa dan sa’ad, dabakatul kubra , j 4 shafi na 56, bairuit darul kutubul ilmiyya, budu na daya shekara ta 1406; daru kudni, Ali dan Umar, al-mukhta wal mukhtalaf , j 2 shafi 785, bairut, darul magribul islami, bugu na farko, 1406.
[7] Tarihil umam wal muluk (taruhud dabari), j 3 shafi na 171; abu na’im, Ahmad dan Abdullah, hilyatul auliaya dwa dabakatul asfia j 1 shafi na 195, bugun alkahira , daru ummul kura, bugun farko ba tarihi.
[8] Ibni hajar al-askalani, Ahmad dan Ali , ai-isaba fi tamyizul sahaba j 3 shafi na 118, beruit darul kutubul ilmiyya, bugu na daya shekar ta 1415. B.H.K.
[9] Ibni Hisham, abdul malik, siratun nabawiyya, j 1 shafi na 214, beruit, darul ma’arifa, ba tarihi, ibnul jauzi, Abdurrahman dan Ali, safitul safwah j 1 shafi na 270, buirut, darul kutubul ilmiyya, bugu na uku , 1423. B.H.K.
[10] Deh khuda, littafin kalmomi , a karkashin Kalmar “dehkan”.
[11] Ka duba alsiran nabawiyya j 1 shafi na 214-218. Da dabakarul kubra na ibni sa’ad shafi na 57-58.
[12] Ka duba alsiran nabawiyya j 1 shafi na 218. Da dabakarul kubra na ibni sa’ad shafi na 57-58.
[13] Al-siran nabawiyya j 1 shafi na 590. Da wakidi Muhammad  dan Umar, kitabul magazi, j 1 shafi na 2 beruit mu’assasatua Alami, bugu na uku shekara ta 1409.B.H.K.
[14] Dabakatul kubra, j 6 shafi na 95. Da Abu, na’imulahmad dan Abdullahi , ma’arifatus Sahaba, j 2 shafi na 455, bairuit , darul kutubul ilmiyya, bugu na daya 1422. B.H.K.
[15]  Alsiratul nabawiyya j 1 shafi na 219, ibni asir Mubarak Muhammad  aimukhtar minmanakibul akhyari, j 2 shafi na 454, al-ainu amaarat, markazu zaiyid litturasi wal tarihi, buguna daya 1424. B.H.K. Da usudul gaba fi ma’arifatul sahaba, j 2 shafi na 266.
[16] Safdi khalul dan ubaiki, alwafi bil wafiyat, j 15 shafi na 310. Beruit, darul nashri faranaz stailaz, bugu na biyu shekar ta 1401. Da dabakatul kubra j 6 shafi na 95.
[17] Bakaziri Ahmad dan yahaya , ansabul ashrafi, j 1 shafi na 87, beruit darul fikri bugu na daya shekar ta 1417. Da ma’arifatul sahaba j 2 shafi na 455. Da sifatul safwah, j 1 shafi na 269.
[18] Ansabul ashrafi j 1 shafi na 343.
[19] Aldabakatul kubra j 4 shafi na 62.
[20] Dabrasi, fadhlu dan Hasan, ialamuul wara bi aalamul huda, j 1 shafi na 234. Kum, muasatu Ahlulbaiti (a.s) bugu na daya shekara ta 1409. Da zahabi Muhammad  dan Ahmad a cikin tarihul islam, j 2 shafi na 594, beruit, darl kitabul arabi, bugu na biyu, shekara ta 1409. Da Ali dan Ibrahim a cikin siratul halbiyya j 3 shafi na 167 beruit darul kutubul ilmiyya, bugu na biyu, shekara ta 1427.
[21] Taruhul dabari j 4 shafi na 41.
[22] Ka duba ibni kasir damashki, ismail dan umar , albidaya wal nihaya, j 7 shafi na 6- 66, beruit darul fikir shekara ta 1407.
[23] Ibni abli hadid, abdulhamid dan hibatul llahi , sharhin nahajul balaga, j 1 shafi na 219, -220. Kum, katab khune, ayatullahi mar’ashi annajafi, bugu na daya, shekar ta 1404.
[24] Dabrasi Ahmad dan Ali al ihtijaji ala ahlul lujaji, j 1 shafi na 110, -112, mashhad , nashri murtadha, bugu na daya, shekara ta 1403.
[25] Ansabul ashrafi na balazuri j 1 shafi na 591.
[26] Adreshin da ya gabata.
[27] Al darajatul rafi’a fi dabakatul Shi”a j 1 shafi na 215.
[28] Ibni abil hadid, sharhi nahjul balaga, j 18 shafi na 35.
[29] Sakafi Ibrahim dan Muhammad  dan sa’ad dan hilal, algarat, j 2 shafi na 823. Tehran, anjimani asare milli, buguna daya shekara ta 1395. Da ibni shari aashub, mazandarani, manakibu aki abi dalib, (a.s) j 1 shafi na 85, kum, alama, bugu na daya shekara ta 1379. Da usudul Gaba fi ma’arifatul sahaba, j 2 shafi na 269. Da Albidaya wal Nihaya j 2 shafi na 180.
[30] Shekh mufid, al- ikhtisas, shafi na 341, kum taron tunawa da shekh mufid, bugu na daya shekara ta 1413.
[31] Aldabakatul kubra j 4 shafi na 62.
[32] Ka duba ibni asakir, shafi’I, abul kasim Ali dan Hasan tarihu masinati Damashka, j 421 shafi na 208 – 421. Beruit darul fikiri shekara ta 1415.
[33] Nasru dan muzahim wak’atu siffin, shafi na 323, kum , maktabar ayatullahi Mar’ashi annajafi, bugu na biyu, shekara ta 1404. Da Usudul gaba, j 2 shafi na 268, da albidaya wal nihaya j 7 shafi na 311.
[34] Tarikhu madinatu Damashka, j 21 shafi na 409 - 910.
[35] Shekh saduk , Khisal, j 2 shafi na 361, kum, daru intidhataraul islami, bugu na daya, shekara ta 1362.
[36] Tarihu madinatu damashka, j 21 shafi na 421.
[37] Kashhi Muhammad  dan Umar, acikin ikhtiyari ma’arifatul rijal, shafi na 12, nashri danashgahe mashhad, shekara ta 1348.
[38] Aminu amili, sayyaid muhsin, a cikin aayanul Shi”a, j 7 shafi na 279, beruit, darul ta’aruf lil madbu’ati, 1406.
[39] Tarihu madinatu damashk, j 21 shafi na 458- 459.
[40] Aayanul Shi”a j 7 shafi na 280, khadibul bagdadi, abu bakar dan Ahmad dan Ali tarikhu bagdad, j 1 shafi na 176, beruit darul kutubul ilmiyya, bugu na daya, shekara ta 1417. Da ma’arifatul sahaba, j 2 shafi na 455.
[41]“Yadda aka gudanar da taro bunne Salman” 69228.
[42] “Yadda aka gudanar da taro bunne Salman” 69228.
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