Advanced search
Visit
6102
Last Updated: 2011/01/31
Summary of question
What is the purpose of taht al-hanak ? The Prophet (s) would unroll a round of his turban and pass it under his chin during salaat? What is the correct way to wear it? Why do some ulama wear it and others do not?
question
What is the purpose of taht al-hanak ? The Prophet (s) would unroll a round of his turban and pass it under his chin during salaat? What is the correct way to wear it? Why do some ulama wear it and others do not?
Concise answer

There is no tradition about the desirability of wearing taht al-hanak  (fold of turban passed under the chin) during prayers. Shaykh Saduq is the only scholar who in his "man la-yahzuruhu al-faqih" has ascribed this clerical practice to his masters or teachers. However, there are many narrations according to which wearing taht al-hanak is recommended for a person who is on a journey or who is going out in search of something. As for how one should wear it, it is said that: One should unroll one end of his turban and let it hang down towards the chin; it is not necessary to pass the unrolled end of the turban under the chin and tie it to the other end. In case, it is passed under the chin, it is still considered an act of wearing taht al-hanak. The fact that some ulama do not attach importance to wearing taht al-hanak or even do not consider it to be recommended at times other than the time of a prayer is because there are certain narrations according to which wearing taht al-hanak  is aimed at distinguishing Muslims from non-Muslims. Now that the adversaries of Islam are not wearing turbans, this instruction lacks a subject upon which it may be based. According to some scholars who do not wear taht al-hanak, wearing it is not considered a recommended act.

Detailed Answer

The narrations or reports pertaining to "taht al-hanak" are divided into a few categories. There are narrations which imply the desirability of wearing or tying taht al-hanak   in prayers or during a journey or while going out in search of something or in an absolute way in all circumstances.

As for the desirability of wearing taht al-hanak   during prayers, there is not any narration (revayat) in this regard. Shaykh Saduq is the only scholar who in his "man la-yahzuruhu al-faqih" has ascribed this clerical practice to his masters or teachers. He says, "I heard my masters and teachers say that it is not permissible for a turbaned man to pray without hanak or a fold of the turban hanging down to the chin, and it is also not permissible for one who is wearing a turban to offer his prayers without a fold passed under his chin."[1]

The fact that he ascribes wearing taht al-hanak   to his masters or teachers is because he did not come across any traditions that recommended wearing taht al-hanak   during prayers. Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi, the author of Jawaher al-Kalam also says: "I did not locate any traditions regarding the desirability of wearing taht al-hanak   during prayers. Indeed, there are many narrations which recommend wearing taht al-hanak under all circumstances. Obviously, prayer is also one of those circumstances [in which one can wear taht al-hanak]."[2]

In any case, there are many traditions from the infallibles according to which wearing taht al-hanak  is recommended for a person who is on a journey or when he goes out in search of something. Imam Kazim (a) said:

"I promise a person, who wears a turban on a journey and hangs its taht al-hanak, three things: he will not be robbed of his property by a thief, he will not drown and will not burn."[3]

Imam Sadiq (a) says: "I am surprised about how it may be possible for someone not to get his wish fulfilled, he who embarks on a task or starts doing it while he is wearing a turban and taht al-hanak."[4]

Wearing taht al-hanak has been emphasized in other traditions in a general way. Two of those of traditions are the following:

It has been narrated about the Holy Prophet of Islam as such: "He forbade wearing a turban without tying taht al-hanak ."[5]

Imam Sadiq (a) says, "Whoever wears a turban but he does not wear taht al-hanak and then he is afflicted with a pain for which there is no cure, he should not blame anyone but himself."[6]

Considering the existing traditions and the consensus which has been reported by Shaykh Saduq, wearing taht al-hanak has been established and ascertained as recommended to the grand religious authorities. That is why, they have advised the believers to wear taht al-hanak in prayers[7] without having to negate its desirability in other circumstances.

How to Tie Taht al-hanak

In regards to tying taht al-hanak, it has been said: One should unroll one end of his turban and let it hang down towards the chin; it is not necessary to pass the unrolled end of the turban under the chin and tie it to the other end. In case, it is passed under the chin, it is still considered to be an act of wearing taht al-hanak.[8] Of course, if a person passes the fold under the chin, one becomes more confident of having practiced taht al-hanak.[9]

Why don't some scholars act upon the reports about wearing taht al-hanak?

Firstly, it is necessary to mention that what is inferred from the traditions imply that wearing taht al-hanak is a desirable act not an obligatory one. If a jurisprudent does not act upon such desirability for any reason –including the difficulty of wearing taht al-hanak in today's life – we cannot question or criticize him.

Secondly, some traditions indicate that wearing taht al-hanak (especially at times other than the time of prayer) has been restricted to the time when the pagans did not wear taht al-hanak. This practice which was called "iqti'at" was characteristic of them, and those who did not wear taht al-hanak indirectly made others understand that they were with the pagans. The Holy Prophet of Islam (s) has been narrated as having said: "The difference between a Muslim and a non-Muslim is in the Muslims' folding of their turbans under their chins."[10]

It is good to know that even some of the traditionists like late Faiz Kashani held that wearing taht al-hanak was a way of combating against the unbelievers' motto and signs that were exclusive to the early period of Islam.[11]

Considering that wearing taht al-hanak is a kind ‘fame dress’ which means a dress involving hypocrisy and pretence, a dress whose cloth or colour or sewing is not befitting for the person and with which he pretends to be a pious person or a hermit. Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi, the author of Jawaher al-Kalam says in Mafatih al-Sharayi' about the prohibition of wearing taht al-hanak: "I say, we may with reference to the traditions about 'fame dress' consider wearing taht al-hanak as being forbidden."[12] Obviously, Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi does not give his opinion in this regard in a clear-cut and decisive way.

Shahid Murtaza Mutahhari says: "There are many traditions which instruct wearing taht al-hanak under the chin at all times including during prayers. One of those traditions is this: الْفَرْقُ بَیْنَ الْمُؤْمِنینَ وَالْمُشْرِکینَ التَّلَحّى That is to say, the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims is in passing a fold of their turban under their chins. Some Akhbaris using this tradition say that taht al-hanak  should be hanging down towards the chin but late Mullah Mohsin Faiz has made a deduction saying that in the past the pagans' motto was to pull one end of the turban in a way such that it stood out of the turban. This practice was called 'iqti'at' and those who adhered to it indirectly made others understand that they were pagans. This tradition orders us to combat their motto and not to follow them. However, today there is no such motto and the hadith lacks any subject upon which an injunction may be based. Now, it has become vice-versa. Since everyone is now tying taht al-hanak to the upper part of the turban without passing it under the chin, in case a person wants to pass it under the chin, it would be forbidden because it is seen as 'fame dress' and wearing 'frame dress' is forbidden.[13]

Although Faiz Kashani's argument about the tradition which has been narrated from the Prophet is valid, there are traditions from the infallible Imams e.g. Imam Sadiq and Imam Kazim (peace be upon them) according to which one cannot say that wearing taht al-hanak   was confined to the time in which a Muslim had to be distinguished from a non-Muslim using this under-chin practice. The hadith is general and it can be applicable to any circumstances. However, the 'fame dress confusion' still remains there and it has to be discussed whether wearing taht al-hanak   is a fame dress or not.[14]



[1] - Saduq, Muhammad bin Ali bin Babvayh, translated by Ali Akbar Ghaffari, Man La-Yahzuruhu al-Faqih, vol.1, pg.402, Saduq Publications, Tehran, 1409 A.H.

[2] - Najafi, Muhammad Hussein, Jawaher al-Kalam fi Sharh Sharay'I al-Islam, vol.8, pg.252, Dar Ihyaa al-Thurath al-Arabi, Beirut.

[3] - Saduq, Muhammad bin Ali bin Babvayh, Thawab al-A'maal wa Iqab al-A'maal, translated by Ansari, pg.361, Nasim Kauthar Publications, Qom, 1382 A.H.

[4] - Man La-Yahzuruhu al-Faqih, translated by Ghaffari, vol.1, pg.403.

[5] - Hurr Amili, Muhammad bin hasan, Wasail al-Shi'ah, vo.4, pg.403, Aalulbayt Institute, Qom, 1409 A.H.

[6] - Qummi, Abbas, Al-Ghayatul Quswa fi Tarjomat al-Urwatul Wuthqa, vol.1, pg.352, Subh-e Piruzi Publications, Qom, 1423 A.H.

[7] - Tawzih al-Masail (with annotations by Imam Khomeini), vol.1, pg.478.

[8] - Qummi, Abbas, Al-Ghayatul Quswa fi Tarjomat al-Urwatul Wuthqa, vol.1, pg.352, Subh-e Piruzi Publications, Qom, 1423 A.H.

[9] - Some jurisprudential books have written about the way one should wear taht al-hanak: ": یتحقّق الحنک بإدارة جزء من العمامة تحته. [In order for one to wear Taht al-hanak, it would be sufficient to pass one a part of the turban under the chin." See: Shahid Thani, Zaynuddin bin Ali, Hashiyat Sharayi' al-Islam, pg.81, Islamic Propagation Office, Qom (without date).

[10] - Man La-Yahzuruhu al-Faqih, vol.1, pg. 266, Islamic Publications Office, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[11] - Faiz Kashani, Mohsen, Al-Wafi, vol.20, pg. 745, Amirul Momeneen Library, Isfahan, 1406 A.H.

[12] - Jawaher al-Kalam fi Sharh Sharayi' al-Islam, vol.8, pg.252.

[13] - Mutahhari, Mutaza, A Collection of Works, vol.20, pg.171.

[14] - Some say that if the desirability of a dress is established, then it is no longer opposed to wearing opposed to wearing fame dress. On the contrary, some say that the arguments concerning fame dress include the desirable cases also. See: Jawaher al-Kalam, vol.8, pg.253. He says:

قال الامام ع: من لبس ثوبا یشهره کساه الله یوم القیامة ثوبا من النار، لکن قد یناقش فی خصوص ما کان منه مندوبا سابقا بأن بین هذه الأدلة و أدلة الندب تعارض العموم من وجه، و لعله لذا تأمل فیه الأستاذ الأکبر، و قد تدفع بأن الحرمة من جهة الشهرة لا تنافی دلیل الندب الظاهر فیما لا یشمل هذه الجهة و نحوها، مضافا إلى إمکان ترجیح هذا الإطلاق بما فی خبر معلى بن خنیس‏.

Question translations in other languages
Comments
Number of comments 0
Please enter the value
Example : Yourname@YourDomane.ext
Please enter the value
Please enter the value

Thematic Category

Random questions

Popular