This question doesn’t have a brief answer. Please click on the detailed answer.
The most famous scholars of irfan throughout history from the first century are as follows:
In the first and second centuries: The Kufi sufi, Abu Hashem, Shaqiq Balkhi, Ma’ruf Karakhi, Fudhayl ibn Ayadh.
In the third century: Bayazid Bastami, Sirri Saqati, Hareth Muhasibi, Juneyd Baghdadi, Dhunnun Misri, Sahl ibn Abdillah Tustari, Husein ibn Mansour Hallaj.
In the fourth century: Abu Bakr Shibli, Abu Ali Rudbari, Abu Nasr Siraj Tusi, Abulfadhl Sarkhasi, Abu Abdillah Rudbari, Abu Taleb Makki.
In the fifth century: Abul-Hasan Kharaqani, Abu Sa’id Abul-Kheyr, Abu Ali Daqqaq Neyshabouri, Abul-Hasan Ali ibn Uthman Hajwiri, Khajeh Abdullah Ansari, Abu Hamed Muhammad Ghazali, Abul-Qasem Abdul-Karim Qusheyri.
In the sixth century: Eynul-Qudhat Hamedani, Sanayi Ghaznavi, Ahmad Jami, Abdul-Qader Gilani, Ruzbehan Baqli Shirazi.
In the seventh century: Najmuddin Kubra, Fariduddin Attar Neyshabouri, Shahabuddin Sohrevardi Zanjani (this is other than the Shahabuddin Sohrevardi that is known as the Sheikh of Ishraq), Ibn Faredh Misri, Muhyiddin Arabi, Sadruddin Qunawiyy, Jalaluddin Rumi (Mowlavi), Fakhruddin Araaqi.
In the eighth century: Ala’uddowlah Simnani, Abdul-Razzaq Kashani, Khajeh Hafez Shirazi, Sheikh Mahmoud Shabestari, Seyyid Heydar Amoli, Abdul-Karim Jeyli.
In the ninth century: Shah Ni’matullah Valiyy, Sa’inuddin Ali Tarakeh Esfehani, Muhammad ibn Hamah Fanari, Shamsuddin Muhammad Lahiji and Nuruddin Abdul-Rahman Jami.
From the ninth century and on, we don’t know of any learned and renowned individuals amongst the Sufis. Mostly, those who have become famous for theoretical mysticism aren't officially affiliated with the Sufis, like Mulla Sadra, Muhammad Sadiq Ardestani, Seyyid Radhiyy Larijani, Muhammad Ridha Qomshe’i, and Mirza Hashem Eshkevari.
The mystics we named above have left behind very valuable works or sayings that constitute an important portion of culture and science in Islamic history; works such as Qutul-Qulub of Abu Taleb Makki, Kashful-Mahjub of Hajwiri, Rasa’el of Qusheyri, Tamhidat of Eynul-Qudhat Hamedani, Awariful-Ma’arif, of Sohrevardi, Ihya’ul-Ulum of Ghazali, Futuhat Makkiyyah and Fususul-Hikam of Muhyiddin Arabi, Al-Insanul-Kamel of Abdul-Karim Jeyli, and also the commentaries that have been written for these books and the poetry books by mystics like Attar Neyshabouri, Ibn Faredh Misri, Jalaluddin Rumi, Hafez Shirazi, and Sheikh Mahmoud Shabestari.
Allamah Hasanzadeh Amoli, Jawadi Amoli, Shah Abadi, and Fateminia are some of the great arefs living amongst us today.
 Adopted from the introduction to the “Irfan” software of the Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences (Noorsoft).